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Huberman Lab

Huberman Lab

The Huberman Lab Podcast discusses neuroscience: how our brain and its connections with the organs of our body control our perceptions, our behaviors, and our health. We also discuss existing and emerging tools for measuring and changing how our nervous system works. Dr. Andrew Huberman is a tenured Professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine. His laboratory studies neural regeneration, neuroplasticity, and brain states such as stress, focus, fear, and optimal performance. For more than 20 years, Dr. Huberman has consistently published original research findings and review articles in top-level peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, Science, Cell, Neuron, and Current Biology. He is a regular member of several National Institutes of Health review panels and a Fellow of the McKnight Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Dr. Huberman regularly consults for technology development companies, professional athletic organizations, and various units of U.S. and Canadian Special Operations.

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Episodes

LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Seattle, WA

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting two live events, one in Seattle, WA and one in Portland, OR. These events were part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of each evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Seattle, WA. Attend The Brain Body Contract Live Events Los Angeles, CA: October 16, 2022 New York, NY: November 9, 2022 https://hubermanlab.com/tour Presale password: huberman Thank you to our sponsors Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Brain Body Contract Q&A (00:01:07) Momentous Supplements, InsideTracker (00:01:35) Upcoming Live Events: Los Angeles & New York (00:02:16) What Is Your Most-Used Protocol? (00:04:12) Should You Vary Wake-Up Time Seasonally? (00:06:05) Why Is My Drive Depleted Upon Waking-Up? (00:08:42) What Are Your Favorite/Most Impactful Books? (00:12:08) What Excites You About the Future of Mental Health Treatment? (00:17:25) What Is the Biggest Area Tor Performance Enhancement? (00:21:44) Can You Still Do a Kickflip? (00:22:32) Tips on How to Improve Memory (00:24:54) How Do You Manage Social Media Addiction? (00:27:43) Were You Nervous Tonight/ How Did You Prepare? (00:29:10) Is Learning from Failure Equal to Learning from Success? (00:32:23) When Are You Going to Start Training Jiu-Jitsu? (00:33:28) Discuss the Supplements You Take (00:36:29) Advice or Protocols to Improve Learning & Retention (00:38:42) What Exciting Research/Work are You Doing? (00:40:22) How Does Dopamine Factor into Neuroplasticity? (00:43:12) What Advice Do You Have for Future Scientists? (00:46:47) Is Age 66 Too Old for Neuroplasticity & Learning? (00:48:00) How Do You Read Research Papers? (00:49:40) What is Your Favorite Condiment? (00:50:10) Most Important Takeaway from Your ADHD Research? (00:52:58) What Future Episodes Are in the Pipeline? ?Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-08-17
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Dr. Peter Attia: Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones for Vitality & Longevity | Episode 85

My guest this episode is Dr. Peter Attia, M.D., who trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Attia is host of The Drive podcast and is a world expert on behavioral approaches, nutritional interventions, supplementation and pharmacological techniques to improve lifespan, healthspan and athletic performance. We discuss how best to evaluate your health status using routine blood work, body scans and regular tests of physical strength and endurance. Dr. Attia explains what he uses with his patients to ?back-cast? their health goals as a way to design their exercise and nutritional programs. We also discuss hormone modulation and replacement therapy for both men and women. We explain how cholesterol and related factors contribute to cardiovascular disease risk and how to monitor and mitigate that risk. Dr. Attia details various supplementation, nutrition, exercise and prescription approaches useful to people in every decade of life to improve vitality, reduce their risk of disease and increase the number of years sustaining peak cognitive and physical health.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Assessing Health Status & Improving Vitality  (00:02:51) Momentous Supplements  (00:03:46) Thesis, InsideTracker, Helix Sleep  (00:07:29) Lifespan: Bloodwork & Biomarkers Testing, The ?4 Horseman of Disease?  (00:11:51) Healthspan: Functional Testing, Cognitive & Emotional States  (00:13:59) Blood Testing: Best Frequency  (00:16:01) DEXA Scan: Lean Mass & Fat, Bone Mineral Density & Osteoporosis  (00:22:33) Bone Mineral Density & Age-Related Decline, Strength Training, Corticosteroids  (00:29:24) Osteopenia & Osteoporosis Diagnosis, Strength Training (00:31:03) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:16) Back-casting: Defining Your ?Marginal Decade?  (00:38:31) All-Cause Mortality: Smoking, Strength, VO2 max  (00:44:43) Attia?s Rule of Supplementation, ?Centenarian Decathlete? Physical Goals (00:49:24) Importance of Exercise, Brain Health, MET hours  (00:55:23) Nicotine & Cognitive Focus (01:03:12) Menstruation, PMS & Menopause  (01:10:10) Hormone Replacement Therapy, Menopause & Breast Cancer Risk (01:22:06) Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone Therapies in Women (01:26:35) Hormone Replacement Therapy in Men, SHBG & Testosterone, Insulin (01:37:23) Clomid, Pituitary, Testosterone & Cholesterol, Anastrozole, HCG (01:47:46) Fadogia Agrestis, Supplements, Rapamycin  (01:52:06) Testosterone Replacement Therapy & Fertility  (01:59:26) Total Testosterone vs. Free Testosterone (02:02:51) Cholesterol & Dietary Cholesterol, Saturated Fat, LDL & HDL, Apolipoprotein B (02:17:42) Apolipoprotein B, Diet, Statins & Other Cholesterol Prescriptions  (02:25:15) Cardiovascular Disease, Age & Disease Risk  (02:28:53) Peptides, Stem Cells, BPC157, PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma), Injury Rehabilitation  (02:37:40) Metabolomics & Exercise  (02:40:44) GLP-1 & Weight Loss  (02:47:06) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-08-15
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Sleep Toolkit: Tools for Optimizing Sleep & Sleep-Wake Timing | Episode 84

In this episode, I describe a comprehensive toolkit consisting of behavioral and supplement-based tools that you can customize to enhance the quality, duration and impact of your sleep. This has an enormous positive impact on your overall health and daytime functioning, brain, hormones and immune system. I teach you how to effectively harness light (and darkness), temperature, food, exercise, caffeine, supplements, and digital devices in order to fall asleep faster, stay deeply asleep longer and overall, and achieve better quality sleep. I also describe how these tools can be modified to recover quickly from a poor night?s sleep, jet lag or bouts of shift work. Given that sleep is the foundation of all mental health, physical health and performance, this episode should benefit everyone as it provides an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost strategies that can be tailored to optimize your sleep routine. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Tools to Optimize Sleep (00:03:02) Momentous Supplements (00:04:16) InsideTracker, Eight Sleep, LMNT (00:08:24) Factors to Control Circadian Rhythm & Sleep (00:15:10) Morning Tool: Morning Sunlight Viewing, Cortisol (00:20:44) Morning Sunlight: Circadian Rhythm, Artificial Lights, Cloudy Days (00:26:18) Evaluating Light in Environment, Compensating for Missed Morning Light (00:29:26) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:30:46) Morning Tools: Temperature & Deliberate Cold Exposure, Exercise (00:34:58) Timing Caffeine, ?Afternoon Crash,? Exercise (00:40:08) Timing Eating, Alertness & Circadian Rhythm (00:45:20) 3 Daily Critical Periods (00:46:49) Afternoons: Naps, Deep Relaxation (NSDR, Self-Hypnosis), Exercise & Body Temperature, Caffeine (00:51:59) Afternoon Tools: Viewing Sunlight in Late Afternoon, Evening Light (00:56:45) Evening/Night Tools: Overhead Artificial Lights, Light Sensitivity (01:04:40) Evening Tools: Hot Bath/Sauna, Temperature & Sleeping Environment (01:09:40) Alcohol, THC & Reduced Sleep Quality; CBD, Anxiety & Falling Asleep (01:11:45) Sleep Supplements: Magnesium Threonate, Apigenin & Theanine (01:16:34) Melatonin Supplementation (Caution) (01:17:44) Additional Sleep Supplements: GABA, Glycine, Myo-Inositol & Anxiety (01:20:08) Falling Back Asleep: Reveri App, NSDR, Yoga Nidra (01:22:55) Staying Asleep: Eye Masks, Ear Plugs, Elevating Feet (01:24:58) Tool: Sleep Apnea & Nasal Breathing (01:28:20) Sleep Schedule Consistency, Weekends, Compensatory Sleep & Caffeine (01:31:14) Tools: Temperature Minimum & Jet Lag, Shift Work & Red Lights (01:37:38) Behavioral Tools for 3 Daily Critical Periods (01:39:26) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Huberman Lab Clips, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-08-08
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Dr. Emily Balcetis: Tools for Setting & Achieving Goals | Episode 83

My guest this episode is Dr. Emily Balcetis, PhD, Professor of Psychology at New York University (NYU). Dr. Balcetis? research focuses on how our perception of the world, particularly our visual perceptions, influences our level and persistence of motivation, how we conceptualize goals, actual goal achievement, and our emotional state as we pursue goals. Dr. Balcetis explains how to best visualize and overcome challenges in pursuit of larger, complex goals. We also discuss the science of how to define goals and intermediate milestones, overcome obstacles, and effectively track progress. This episode highlights science-based, immediately actionable tools that anyone can use to set and achieve physical and/or cognitive goals more effectively. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman  Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Emily Balcetis, Visualization of Goals & Motivation (00:03:24) Momentous Supplements (00:04:38) Thesis, Levels, ROKA (00:08:08) Vision & Motivation (00:11:37) Tool: Narrowing Visual Focus & Improving Exercise (00:21:39) Adjusting Visual Attention & Perceived Fatigue (00:25:14) Tool: Visual Focus ?Spotlight? (00:27:57) Tool: Goal Gradient Hypothesis, Visual Spotlight to Increase Effort (00:33:38) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:35:00) Defining Goals vs. Accomplishing Goals, Dream Boards & Goal Lists  (00:41:28) Tool: How to Setting Better Goals & Identify Obstacles (00:46:38) Vision is Unique, Challenging the Visual System, Realistic Goals & Micro-Goals (00:57:12) Do Fit People View the World Differently?, States of Body & Visual Experiences (01:05:54) Caffeine, Stimulants, Visual Windows & Motivation (01:10:13) Tools: Goal Setting & Cognitive (Non-Physical) Goals, Data Collection (01:21:54) Year in Review & Memory (01:26:32) Visual Tools & Mental Health, Depression & Visual Priming (01:31:33) Focusing Attention & Increasing Visual Detail/Resolution (01:36:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Momentous Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-08-01
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The Science & Treatment of Bipolar Disorder | Episode 82

In this episode, I explain the biology, symptoms, causes and types of bipolar disorder (sometimes called bipolar depression). I discuss neuroplasticity and how the brain normally regulates mood, energy, and perceptions; then, I contrast that with the biology of bipolar disorder, which is characterized by extremes of energy and mood, e.g., mania and depression. I outline the mechanisms through which bipolar disorder manifests in the brain, including deficits of interoception and reduced connections between the parietal and limbic systems. I also outline how treatment options (such as lithium) work in part through homeostatic plasticity.? I discuss not only lithium but also the treatment of bipolar with ketamine, different talk therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and nutraceuticals, including Omega-3 and Inositol supplementation. This episode should interest anyone who has or knows someone with bipolar disorder and, more broadly, those interested in how the brain works to create a balance between thoughts, energy levels, focus, and mood. Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Blinkist: https://www.blinkist.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Bipolar Disorder (00:02:23) Momentous Supplements (00:03:42) Tool: Appetite Suppression & GLP-1, Parallel Pathways, Yerba Mate (00:10:23) InsideTracker, ROKA, Blinkist (00:14:24) Prevalence & Severity of Bipolar Disorder (00:16:30) Bipolar Disorder I, Diagnostic Criteria of Mania (00:28:58) Bipolar Disorder II, Individual Variability (00:33:07) Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II: Manic, Depressive & Symptom-Free States (00:38:20) Consequences of Bipolar Disorder, Heritability (00:46:53) Bipolar Disorder vs. Borderline Personality Disorder (00:51:51) Mania & Depression, Negative Impacts (00:53:06) History of Lithium Treatment (01:02:44) Lithium Treatment & Side-Effects (01:05:05) Effects of Lithium: BDNF, Anti-inflammatory & Neuroprotection (01:10:10) Neural Circuits of Bipolar Disorder, Interoception, Hyper- vs. Hypoactivity (01:17:11) Neural States & Mania, Parietal Lobe & Limbic System (01:22:58) Homeostatic Plasticity, Synaptic Scaling, Lithium & Ketamine (01:36:00) Talk Therapies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Family-Focused Therapy, Interpersonal & Social Rhythm Therapy (01:43:18) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) (01:48:01) Psylocibin, Cannabis (01:51:50) Lifestyle Support, Supplements: Inositol & Omega-3 Fatty Acids (02:03:31) Omega-3s, Membrane Fluidity & Neuroplasticity (02:06:44) Mania, Creativity & Occupations (02:15:33) Bipolar Disorder: Diagnosis, Neural Circuits & Treatment (02:17:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-07-25
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Dr. Charles Zuker: The Biology of Taste Perception & Sugar Craving | Episode 81

My guest this episode is Dr. Charles Zuker, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, Molecular Biophysics and Neuroscience at Columbia University and an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Dr. Zuker is the world?s leading expert in the biology of taste, thirst and craving. His laboratory explores the mechanisms of taste perception, focusing on how our conscious and unconscious processing of specific foods and nutrients guide our actions and behaviors. We discuss the neural circuits of taste, the ?gut-brain axis,? the basis of food cravings and the key difference between wanting (craving) and liking (perceiving) sugar. We also explore how taste perception relates to specific food satiety, thirst, to our emotions, and expectation. We also consider how sugar containing and highly-processed foods can hijack the natural balance of the taste and digestive systems. Dr. Zuker provides a true masterclass in the biology of taste and perception that ought to be of interest to anyone curious about how the brain works, our motivated behaviors and the neural, chemical perceptual aspects of the mind. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Charles Zuker & Taste Perception (00:03:05) Momentous Supplements (00:04:35) Thesis, ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:08:35) Sensory Detection vs. Sensory Perception (00:11:48) Individual Variations within Perception, Color (00:16:20) Perceptions & Behaviors (00:20:19) The 5 Taste Modalities (00:26:18) Aversive Taste, Bitter Taste (00:28:00) Survival-Based & Evolutionary Reasons for Taste Modalities, Taste vs. Flavor (00:30:14) Additional Taste Modalities: Fat & Metallic Perception (00:34:02) Tongue ?Taste Map,? Taste Buds & Taste Receptors  (00:39:34) Burning Your Tongue & Perception (00:42:54) The ?Meaning? of Taste Stimuli, Sweet vs. Bitter, Valence (00:51:55) Positive vs. Negative Neuronal Activation & Behavior (00:56:16) Acquired Tastes, Conditioned Taste Aversion  (01:01:44) Olfaction (Smell) vs. Taste, Changing Tastes over One?s Lifetime (01:09:14) Integration of Odor & Taste, Influence on Behavior & Emotion (01:17:26) Sensitization to Taste, Internal State Modulation, Salt (01:24:05) Taste & Saliva: The Absence of Taste (01:28:10) Sugar & Reward Pleasure Centers; Gut-Brain Axis, Anticipatory Response (01:36:23) Vagus Nerve (01:43:09) Insatiable Sugar Appetite, Liking vs. Wanting, Gut-Brain Axis (01:52:03) Tool: Sugar vs. Artificial Sweeteners, Curbing Appetite (01:54:06) Cravings & Gut-Brain Axis  (01:57:30) Nutrition, Gut-Brain Axis & Changes in Behavior (02:01:53) Fast vs. Slow Signaling & Reinforcement, Highly Processed Foods  (02:10:38) Favorite Foods: Enjoyment, Sensation & Context (02:15:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-07-18
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Optimize & Control Your Brain Chemistry to Improve Health & Performance | Episode 80

In this episode, I explain the biological roles of the four major neuromodulators?dopamine, epinephrine (aka adrenaline), serotonin, and acetylcholine?and describe how these neuromodulators impact a wide variety of mental states and behaviors, including focus, creativity, motivation, drive, learning, alertness, mood, relationships, and feelings of well-being. Then, with that foundational understanding in mind, I describe a potent toolkit of science-supported behavioral, nutrition, and supplementation tools that can be used to increase baseline levels of individual neuromodulators and that can be modified for specific goals. This episode summarizes low-or-no-cost, actionable, science-based tools that can benefit anyone in order to enhance their levels of brain chemicals and improve mental health, physical health, and performance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Optimizing Neurochemicals to Improve Health (00:03:40) Momentous Supplements (00:05:30) Sleep & Maintaining Healthy Metabolism (00:09:52) Tools: How to Wake Up Earlier, Night Owls (00:19:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, InsideTracker (00:22:05) Nervous System Overview (00:31:32) How Neuromodulators Work   (00:34:24) Baseline Neuromodulator Levels, 3 Daily Phases (00:42:15) Hormones Modulate Neuromodulators (00:52:12) The 4 Major Types of Neuromodulators (01:01:45) Tool Kit 1: Increase Baseline Dopamine & Focus (01:08:52) Tyrosine-rich Foods & Dopamine (01:10:59) Dopamine Supplementation: Mucuna Pruriens, L-tyrosine & Phenylethylamine (01:16:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Dopamine (01:21:12) Tool Kit 2: Additional Tips to Increase Dopamine (01:26:10) Tool Kit 3: Increase Epinephrine (Adrenaline) & Alertness (01:34:34) Tool Kit 4: Increase Acetylcholine & Attention/Learning; Choline-rich Foods (01:37:29) Acetylcholine Supplements: Nicotine, Alpha GPC, Huperzine   (01:44:47) Tool Kit 5: Behavior to Increase Focus & Acetylcholine (01:46:56) Tool Kit 6: Behavior to Increase Serotonin & Feelings of Well-being   (01:50:51) Tools: Tryptophan-Rich Foods & Serotonin (01:53:31) Tools: Serotonin Supplements: Cissus Quadrangularis, 5-HTP, Myo-inositol (02:02:14) Use the Neurochemical Toolkit to Meet Individual Goals (02:06:44) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-07-11
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Jeff Cavaliere: Optimize Your Exercise Program with Science-Based Tools | Episode 79

My guest this episode is Jeff Cavaliere, MSPT CSCS, a world-class physical therapist and Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist. Jeff has coached athletes ranging from novice to professional and has taught science-based physical training protocols to tens of millions of everyday people via his enormously clear and actionable online programs. Jeff is a true expert on proper resistance and cardiovascular training, injury prevention and rehabilitation and has extensive knowledge on proper form, posture, nutrition and supplementation. We discuss how to best design and optimize a physical training program to achieve your specific goals. We also discuss how to build and leverage mental focus during workouts, when and how to stretch, pain management and enhancing workout recovery and sleep, and how to personalize your training and nutrition program over time. Jeff?s knowledge and science-based approach ought to benefit everyone in reaching their desired fitness, aesthetic and overall health goals. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Jeff Cavaliere, Physical Training (00:03:27) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Eight Sleep, ROKA (00:08:38) Tool: A Fitness Plan for General Health (00:13:27) Tool: Optimizing Body Part Training Splits (00:20:12) Two-a-Day Training (00:22:33) Cardiovascular Conditioning, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) & Skills (00:28:24) Tool: Mind-Muscle Connection, The Cavaliere Cramp Contraction Test (00:35:05) ?Muscularity? & Resting Tone (00:41:31) Tool: Muscle Recovery & Soreness, Grip Strength (00:50:39) Sleep & Sleep Position (00:57:24) Active (Dynamic) vs. Passive Stretching, Timing & Healing Muscle (01:07:23) Tool: Jumping Rope (01:12:56) Internal & External Rotation, Upright Row vs. High Pull (01:24:27) Back Pain Relief & Medial Glutes, Body Pain & Origins (01:37:39) Tool: Properly Holding Weights & Deepening Grip (01:43:54) Tool: Physical Recovery, Heat & Cold Exposure (01:47:19) Tool: Record Keeping for Training Performance & Rest Time (01:51:47) Nutrition Principles & Consistency, Processed Foods & Sugar (02:00:15) Tool: ?Plate Eating?: Protein, Fibrous & Starchy Carbohydrates (02:11:25) Training in Men vs. Women, Training for Kids & Adolescents (02:18:05) Tool: Pre- and Post-Training Nutrition (02:26:30) Intensity & Training Consistency (02:29:53) AthleanX, Jesse Laico & Fitness Journeys (02:38:27) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-07-04
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The Science & Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) | Episode 78

In this episode, I explain the biology and psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)?a prevalent and debilitating condition. I also discuss the efficacy and mechanisms behind OCD treatments?both behavioral and pharmacologic as well as holistic and combination treatments and new emerging treatments, including directed brain stimulation. I explain the neural circuitry underlying repetitive ?thought-action loops? and why in OCD, the compulsive actions merely make the obsessions even stronger. I review cognitive-behavioral therapies like exposure therapy and SSRIs, holistic approaches, and nutraceuticals, detailing the efficacy of each approach and what science says about how to combine and sequence treatments. I describe an often effective approach for treating OCD where clinicians use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to deliberately bring patients into states of high anxiety while encouraging them to suppress compulsive actions in order to help them learn to overcome repetitious thought/action cycles. This episode should interest anyone with OCD, anyone who knows someone with OCD or OCPD, and more generally, those interested in how the brain works to control thoughts and actions, whether those thoughts are intrusive or not. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (00:03:01) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, Eight Sleep (00:08:28) What is OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder? (00:11:18) OCD: Major Incidence & Severity (00:15:10) Categories of OCD (00:21:33) Anxiety: Linking Obsessions & Compulsions (00:27:33) OCD & Familial Heredity (00:29:10) Biological Mechanisms of OCD, Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loops (00:39:36) Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop & OCD (00:46:39) Clinical OCD Diagnosis, Y-BOCS Index (00:51:38) OCD & Fear, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & Exposure Therapy (01:01:56) Unique Characteristics of CBT/Exposure Therapy in OCD Treatment (01:10:18) CBT/Exposure Therapy & Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) (01:22:30) Considerations with SSRIs & Prescription Drug Treatments (01:25:17) Serotonin & Cognitive Flexibility, Psilocybin Studies (01:31:50) Neuroleptics & Neuromodulators (01:36:09) OCD & Cannabis, THC & CBD (01:39:29) Ketamine Treatment (01:41:43) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (01:46:22) Cannabis CBD & Focus (01:47:50) Thoughts Are Not Actions (01:51:27) Hormones, Cortisol, DHEA, Testosterone & GABA (02:00:55) Holistic Treatments: Mindfulness Meditation & OCD (02:03:28) Nutraceuticals & Supplements: Myo-Inositol, Glycine (02:09:45) OCD vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (02:20:53) Superstitions, Compulsions & Obsessions (02:31:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-06-27
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Ido Portal: The Science & Practice of Movement | Episode 77

My guest is Ido Portal, the world?s foremost expert on human movement. Ido has spent a lifetime studying, combining and evolving elements from an enormous range of martial arts, dance genres, athletic endeavors, and science, to develop a unified theory and practice of movement called ?The Ido Portal Method.? Here we discuss all things movement, including the role of the nervous system, reflexive versus deliberate movement patterns, and the link between emotions and awareness in movement. We also discuss learning and neuroplasticity, the mind-body connection and how movement itself can be leveraged toward expanding other types of skills- cognitive, creative and otherwise. As one of the most sought out teachers of movement alive today, the knowledge Ido shares in this conversation can benefit everyone?children, adults, athletes, dancers, clinicians and trainers and the everyday person. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com - code "huberman" Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Ido Portal, Movement & Movement Practice (00:03:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:07:49) What is Movement? (00:10:56) Movement & the Body-Mind Connection (00:14:47) Entry Points to Movement (00:18:08) Early Education in Movement: Awareness, Play & Examination (00:21:19) Stillness, Movement & the Environment, Playfulness (00:31:34) Unique Postures, Types of Movement, Contents vs. Containers (00:40:50) Discomfort: Marker of Movement, Failures & Learning (00:47:05) Movement Diversity, Squat Challenge, Injury, Movement Evolution (00:56:36) Animal & Human Movements, Gain & Change (01:02:04) Core Movement, Emotion & Memory, Spinal Waves, Evolution (01:12:39) Song, Dance & Complex Language, Movement as Language, Consilience (01:21:39) Movement Culture, Community, Collective Knowledge, Wild & Wise (01:26:36) Potential for Movement, ?Humming? (01:32:18) Instructiveness vs Permissiveness, Degrees of Freedom (01:35:50) Variety, Diversity & Virtuosity (01:38:06) Vision & Movement, Focus & Awareness, Panoramic Awareness (01:48:28) Hearing & Movement (01:52:43) Walking Gaits (01:56:55) Playful Variability & Evolution, Improvisation & Openness (02:03:05) Reactivity & Personal Space, Touch & Proximity to Others, Play & Discomfort (02:18:13) Visualization & Experience, Feedback (02:20:14) Linear Movement & Movement Investigation, Examination (02:31:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-06-20
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Improve Flexibility with Research-Supported Stretching Protocols | Episode 76

In this episode, I explain the science behind limb range of motion and flexibility and how to increase them by using science-supported protocols. Flexibility is crucial for physical movements and can help prevent injuries, decrease inflammation, modulate physical and mental pain, impact exercise recovery speed and even potentially slow the progression of certain diseases. I explain the biology of flexibility, including the specific neural mechanisms that sense stretch and load (i.e., tension) on the muscles and limbs, as well as how specific brain regions like the insula combine those signals to ultimately control limb range of movement. I also provide science-based stretching and ?micro-stretching? protocols that reliably improve limb flexibility with the minimum necessary time investment. I review all the details of those stretching protocols: how often to do them, for how long, their timing relative to other exercises, sets, the time between sets, measuring progress and more. All people, physically active or not, should benefit from the information and tools described in this episode. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Flexibility & Stretching (00:02:57) Thesis, InsideTracker, Eight Sleep (00:07:22) Innate Flexibility (00:09:23) Movement: Nervous System, Connective Tissue & Muscle; Range of Motion (00:17:51) Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs) & Load Sensing Mechanisms (00:20:20) Decreased Flexibility & Aging (00:22:38) Insula, Body Discomfort & Choice (00:30:02) von Economo Neurons, Parasympathetic Activation & Relaxation (00:42:00) Muscle Anatomy & Cellular ?Lengthening,? Range of Motion (00:47:16) Tool: Protocol - Antagonistic Muscles, Pushing vs. Pulling Exercises (00:51:57) Types of Stretching: Dynamic, Ballistic, Static & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) (00:59:36) Tool: Increasing Range of Motion, Static Stretching Protocol, Duration (01:05:56) Tool: Static Stretching Protocol & Frequency (01:13:55) Tool: Effective Stretching Protocol (01:17:12) Tool: Warming Up & Stretching (01:19:17) Limb Range of Motion & General Health Benefits (01:25:30) PNF Stretching, Golgi Tendon Organs & Autogenic Inhibition (01:31:23) Tool: Anderson Protocol & End Range of Motion, Feeling the Stretch (01:32:50) Tool: Effectiveness, Low Intensity Stretching, ?Micro-Stretching? (01:41:33) Tool: Should you Stretch Before or After Other Exercises? (01:45:41) Stretching, Relaxation, Inflammation & Disease (01:51:37) Insula & Discomfort, Pain Tolerance & Yoga (02:00:36) Tools: Summary of Stretching Protocols (02:03:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-06-13
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Dr. Paul Conti: Therapy, Treating Trauma & Other Life Challenges | Episode 75

My guest this episode is Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist and expert in treating trauma, personality disorders and psychiatric illnesses and challenges of various kinds. Dr. Conti earned his MD at Stanford and did his residency at Harvard Medical School. He now runs the Pacific Premiere Group?a clinical practice helping people heal and grow from trauma and other life challenges. We discuss trauma: what it is and its far-reaching effects on the mind and body, as well as the best treatment approaches for trauma. We also explore how to choose a therapist and how to get the most out of therapy, as well as how to do self-directed therapy. We discuss the positive and negative effects of antidepressants, ADHD medications, alcohol, cannabis, and the therapeutic potential of psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD), ketamine and MDMA. This episode is must listen for anyone seeking or already doing therapy, processing trauma, and/or considering psychoactive medication. Both patients and practitioners ought to benefit from the information. Thank you to our sponsors ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Blinkist: https://www.blinkist.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti, Trauma & Recovery  (00:02:30) ROKA, InsideTracker, Blinkist (00:07:00) Defining Trauma  (00:14:05) Guilt & Shame, Origins of Negative Emotions (00:21:38) Repeating Trauma, the Repetition Compulsion  (00:28:23) How to Deal with Trauma & Negative Emotions/Arousal  (00:37:17) Processing Trauma, Do You Always Need a Therapist? (00:45:30) Internal Self-talk, Punishing Narratives & Negative Fantasies  (00:51:10) Short-Term Coping Mechanisms vs. Long-Term Change (00:53:22) Tools: Processing Trauma on Your Own, Journaling  (00:57:00) Sublimination of Traumatic Experiences  (01:02:34) Tool: Finding a Good Therapist  (01:07:20) Optimizing the Therapy Process, Frequency, Intensity   (01:14:51) Tool: Self-Awareness of Therapy Needs, Mismatch of Needs (00:16:35) Self-talk & Journaling, Talking to Trusted Individuals  (01:19:00) Prescription Drugs & Treating Trauma, Antidepressants, Treating Core Issues   (01:28:35) Short-term vs. Long-Term Use of Prescription Drugs, Antidepressants (01:32:18) Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Prescription Drugs  (01:37:31) Negative Effects of ADHD Prescription Drugs  (01:40:37) Alcohol, Cannabis ? Positive & Negative Effects (01:44:53) Psychedelics: Psylocibin & LSD, Therapeutic Uses, Trauma Recovery     (01:54:32) Sentience, Language, Animals   (01:55:48) Psychedelic Hallucinations, Trauma Recovery  (02:00:01) MDMA (Therapeutic Uses) (02:04:47) Clinical Aspects of MDMA (02:07:28) Language, Processing Trauma, Social Media, Societal Divisions  (02:15:09) Defining ?Taking Care of Oneself? (02:21:13) Dr. Conti, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-06-06
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The Science & Process of Healing from Grief | Episode 74

This episode, I discuss grief and the challenges of processing losses of different kinds. I explain the biological mechanisms of grief, including how neural circuits for emotional and factual memory combine with those for love and attachment, to create feelings of absence and yearning. I discuss how grief is distinct from depression, yet why they can feel so similar. I also provide science-based tools to assist with the grieving process, including how to reframe and remap the relationship with those we have lost while still maintaining a strong emotional connection to them. I also explain the importance of having and building strong foundational psychological and biological states so that we can better cope with grief when it happens. Finally, I describe tools to adjust those states, including those for accessing sleep, managing stress and emotional swings. This episode is for those suffering from grief but also for everyone, given that we all experience grief at some point in our lives. We recorded this episode before the recent mass shooting tragedies in the United States. While we hope the information in this episode will be of use to anyone suffering from grief of any kind and at any time, we are also careful to acknowledge that many people require additional support and resources. For that reason, we include mention of such resources and we generally hope people will access them if needed. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Grief & Bereavement  (00:03:44) Sponsors (00:08:35) Grief vs. Depression, Complicated Grief  (00:12:20) Stages of Grief, Individual Variation for Grieving  (00:16:05) Grief: Lack & Motivation, Dopamine (00:23:15) Three Dimensions of Relationships (00:29:52) Tool: Remapping Relationships (00:37:15) Grief, Maintaining Emotional Closeness & Remapping  (00:44:40) Memories of Loved Ones & Remapping Attachments  (00:48:04) Yearning for Loved Ones: Memories vs. Reality, Episodic Memory  (00:51:40) Tools: Adaptively Processing Grief, Counterfactual Thinking, Phantom Limbs (01:00:32) Tool: Remembering Emotional Connection & Processing Grief (01:04:03) Memories, Hippocampal Trace Cells & Feeling An Absence  (01:10:14) Yearning & Oxytocin, Individualized Grief Cycles  (01:18:24) Tool: Complicated Grief & Adrenaline (Epinephrine) (01:24:37) Sentimental Attachment to Objects   (01:26:13) Why do Some People Grieve More Quickly? Individual Attachment Capacity  (01:29:42) ?Vagal Tone,? Heart Rate, Breathwork & Grief Recovery  (01:42:32) Complicated Grief & Cortisol Patterns (01:48:50) Tool: Improving Sleep & Grieving  (01:54:28) Tools: Grief Processing & Adaptive Recovery  (02:03:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-05-30
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Dr. Wendy Suzuki: Boost Attention & Memory with Science-Based Tools | Episode 73

My guest is Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Professor of Neural Science and Psychology and (soon) Dean of New York University, whose research focuses on memory, attention, brain plasticity and simple, daily habits that can be leveraged to improve learning, focus, memory and cognitive ability. We discuss the role of cardiovascular exercise, weight training, deliberate cold exposure, meditation, verbal affirmations, sleep, and other behavioral practices for enhancing learning, mood and stress management, and increasing attention span. Dr. Suzuki shares the mechanisms by which these practices change our brain in order to improve cognitive function fast and reduce age-related cognitive decline. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Learning & Memory (00:02:50) Sponors (00:07:27) How Memories Form  (00:10:14) Hippocampus: Memory, Association & Imagination  (00:16:20) Encoding Long-Term Memory (00:18:48) One-Trial Memory (00:21:56) Tool: Foundational Habits to Enhance Brain Performance  (00:30:39) Exercise & Improved Memory, Making a ?Big, Fat, Fluffy Hippocampus?  (00:39:35) Cardiovascular Exercise, BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)  (00:48:48) Neurogenesis (New Neuron Production) in Adults (00:51:50) Effects of Exercise on Memory  (00:56:31) Tool: Timing Daily Exercise, Cortisol  (01:00:02) Age-Related Memory Loss, Daily Exercise  (01:05:33) Tool: Exercise Protocol for Improving Cognition  (01:12:17) Anticipating Exercise, Daily Habits & Behaviors   (01:17:09) ?Every Drop of Sweat Counts? ? Exercise & Cognitive Function  (01:20:58) Positive Affirmations & Mood  (01:27:28) Meditation & Cognitive Performance  (01:32:27) How Meditation Works, Focusing on the Present (01:37:14) Tool: Strategies to Increase Attention  (01:42:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-05-23
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Understand & Improve Memory Using Science-Based Tools | Episode 72

This episode I explain the mechanisms by which different types of memories are established in our brain and how to leverage the amount and timing of key neurochemicals and hormones, such as adrenaline (aka epinephrine) and cortisol, to improve your learning and memory abilities. I describe multiple science-based protocols to do this, including repetition, caffeine, emotional states, deliberate cold exposure, sleep, meditation, and the role of vision, including taking ?mental snapshots.? I also describe how exercise and an associated hormone, osteocalcin, can improve cognitive ability and memory formation. I also describe unique aspects and forms of memory such as photographic memory, extreme facial recognition (aka super recognition), and the phenomenon known as déjà vu. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Memory, Improving Memory   (00:02:45) Sponsors (00:07:54) Sensory Stimuli, Nervous System & Encoding Memory  (00:11:12) Context & Memory Formation  (00:13:46) Tool: Repetition, Improving Learning & Memory  (00:17:11) Co-Activation and intensity Neuron Activation   (00:20:50) Different Types of Memory (00:25:40) Memory Formation in the Brain, Hippocampus  (00:28:00) Hippocampus, Role in Memory & Learning, Explicit vs. Implicit Memory (00:31:49) Emotion & Memory Enhancement  (00:36:44) Tool: Emotion Saliency & Improved Memory (00:41:42) Conditioned-Placed Avoidance/Preference, Adrenaline  (00:47:14) Adrenaline & Cortisol   (00:49:35) Accelerating the Repetition Curve & Adrenaline  (00:53:03) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Caffeine, Alpha-GPC & Stimulant Timing (01:00:50) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Sleep, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (01:04:48) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Deliberate Cold Exposure, Adrenaline (01:08:42) Timing of Adrenaline Release & Memory Formation  (01:12:36) Chronically High Adrenaline & Cortisol, Impact on Learning & Memory  (01:15:12) Adrenaline Linked with Learning: Not a New Principle  (01:17:25) Amygdala, Adrenaline & Memory Formation, Generalization of Memories (01:22:20) Tool: Cardiovascular Exercise & Neurogenesis  (01:27:00) Cardiovascular Exercise, Osteocalcin & Improved Hippocampal Function (01:29:59) Load-Bearing Exercise, Osteocalcin & Cognitive Ability  (01:34:41) Tool: Timing of Exercise, Learning & Memory Enhancement (01:37:29) Photographic Memory (01:38:49) ?Super Recognizers,? Facial Recognition    (01:41:46) Tool: Mental Snapshots, Photographs & Memory Enhancement (01:49:12) Déjà Vu (01:53:24) Tool: Meditation, Daily Timing of Meditation (02:02:21) How to Enhance Memory  (02:05:51) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-05-16
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Understanding & Controlling Aggression | Episode 71

This episode I describe the neural mechanisms that activate and control aggressive states and behaviors and the role of hormones?estrogen and testosterone?in mediating violent and and/or competive aggression. I also describe tools that can be used to modulate the factors that have been shown to ?prime? an individual for aggression, including sunlight, estrogen sensitivity, competition within social settings, and overall stress levels, and the hormone cortisol. I discuss how substances such as caffeine and alcohol can impact impulsive behaviors, and how nutrition and supplementation can be used to regulate mood and aggression.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Aggression, Types of Aggression (00:03:33) Sponsors (00:08:29) Neural Circuits for Aggression, ?Hydraulic Pressure Model?  (00:15:50) Brain Regions Controlling Aggression, Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)  (00:22:14) Psychiatric Disorders & Aggression  (00:23:36) Stimulation of the VMH, Estrogen Receptors & Aggression (00:31:57) Neural Circuits Mediating Physical Acts of Aggression, Biting (0:35:56) Testosterone & Competitiveness/Estrogen & Aggression  (00:43:00) Sunlight, Melatonin & Aggression  (00:45:46) Cortisol, Serotonin & Aggressive Behaviors  (00:51:56) Tool: Omega-3 Supplementation & Mood  (00:54:18) Tool: Sunlight, Sauna & Cortisol Reduction (00:55:54) Tool: Ashwagandha & Cortisol Reduction (00:57:06) Tool: Seasonality/Sunlight, Genetic Variation in Estrogen Sensitivity (01:00:37) Testosterone & Aggression, Competitive Work Environments (01:05:07) Testosterone, Amygdala, Challenge & Effort  (01:09:27) Caffeine, Alcohol & Impulsivity  (01:13:15) Tool: Caffeinated Alcohol Beverages, Impulsivity & Aggression  (01:17:18) Tool: ADHD, Acetyl-L Carnitine & Aggressive Behavior  (01:24:10) Factors Affecting the ?Hydraulic Pressure Model? of Aggression  (01:25:44) Book by Dr. David Anderson, Aggression & Social Relationships  (01:27:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-05-09
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Dr. Rhonda Patrick: Micronutrients for Health & Longevity | Episode 70

My guest is Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D. She earned her doctoral degree in biomedical science from St. Jude Children?s Research Hospital at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and has become one of the leading public health educators on the brain and general health, aging, cancer, and nutrition. We discuss the four major categories of micronutrients that regulate cellular and organ stress and antioxidants, inflammation, hormone regulation, immune system, and longevity. Dr. Patrick provides actionable protocols for obtaining key micronutrients from food and/or supplement-based sources. Additionally, Dr. Patrick outlines protocols for deliberate cold and deliberate heat exposure to benefit metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, mental health, and lifespan.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Rhonda Patrick ? Micronutrients, Cold & Heat Exposure  (00:03:12) Momentous Supplements (00:05:30) Sponsors (00:09:42) Stress Response Pathways, Hormesis (00:16:38) Plants, Polyphenols, Sulforaphane (00:21:12) Tools 1: Sulforaphane - Broccoli Sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Seed  (00:23:50) Tool 2: Moringa & Nrf2 Antioxidant Response (00:25:25) Sulforaphane: Antioxidants (Glutathione) & Air Pollution (Benzene Elimination)  (00:27:10) Plants & Stress Response Pathways, Intermittent Challenges  (00:29:35) Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulforaphane, Nrf2  (00:35:08) Tools 3: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (ALA, EPA & DHA), Fish Oil, Oxidation  (00:48:40) EPA Omega-3s & Depression  (00:52:02) Krill Oil vs. Fish Oil Supplements?  (00:54:23) Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Index & Life Expectancy  (00:59:24) Tool 4: Food Sources of EPA Omega-3s  (01:06:07) Omega-3 Supplementation, Omega-3 Index Testing (01:10:22) Benefits of Omega-3s  (01:14:40) Tool 5: Food Sources of DHA Omega-3s (01:17:07) Vitamin D & Sun Skin Exposure  (01:22:18) Role of Vitamin D, Gene Regulation  (01:25:30) Tool 6: Vitamin D Testing & Vitamin D3 Supplementation  (01:33:15) Tool 7: Skin Surface Area & Sun Exposure, Vitamin D  (01:34:23) Vitamin D & Longevity (01:36:46) Sun Exposure & Sunscreen (01:40:30) Role of Magnesium, Magnesium Sources, Dark Leafy Green Vegetables (01:44:50) Tool 8: Magnesium Supplements: Citrate, Threonate, Malate, Bisglycinate  (01:50:57) Tool 9: Deliberate Cold Exposure Protocol & Mood/Anxiety (01:59:22) Tool 10: Cold Exposure, Mitochondria UCP1 & Heat Generation (02:02:30) Tool 11: Cold & Fat ?Browning?, PGC-1alpha, Metabolism (02:05:08) Cold Exposure & High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), PGC-1alpha, Muscle  (02:08:04) Tools 12: Exercise, HIIT, Tabata & Sauna  (02:13:30) Tool 13: Sauna, Endorphins/Dynorphins, Mood  (02:17:45) Tool 14: Mild Stress, Adrenaline & Memory (02:19:53) Sauna, Vasodilation & Alzheimer?s and Dementia Risk  (02:25:30) Sauna Benefits, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs)  (02:31:29) Insulin signaling, FOXO3 & Longevity  (02:33:22) Tools 16: Sauna Protocols, Hot Baths & Fertility  (02:37:41) Tool 17: Exercise & Longevity, Osteocalcin  (02:41:37) Tools 18: Red Light Sauna? Infrared Sauna? Sauna & Sweating of Heavy Metals (02:47:20) FoundMyFitness Podcast, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab on Instagram & Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-05-02
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The Science & Health Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure | Episode 69

I describe the mechanisms by which deliberate heat exposure impacts body temperature, metabolism, heart health, hormone production, exercise recovery, cognition, mood, and longevity. I detail specific protocols for deliberate heat exposure, including exposure times, temperature ranges to consider, time of day, and delivery mechanisms (sauna vs. hot bath vs. open air heat, etc.) in order to achieve different specific outcomes, including dramatic growth hormone releases, or reduction in cortisol levels. I also discuss the ability of locally applied heat to heal or otherwise improve various bodily tissues and new data on how local application of heat may induce the conversion of metabolically sluggish white fat to metabolically robust beige fat. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Heat & Health (00:03:37) Momentous Supplements (00:05:46) Sponsors (00:09:31) Body Shell Temperature vs. Body Core Temperature (00:13:28) Thermal Regulation, Hyperthermia (00:17:36) Heat Removal Circuits, Pre-Optic Hypothalamus (POA) (00:26:30) Protocols & Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:33:37) Tools & Conditions for Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:38:47) Deliberate Heat Exposure, Cortisol & Cardiovascular Health (00:44:50) Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Regulation (00:47:56) Longevity & Heat Exposure, FOXO3 (00:52:30) Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure & Metabolism (00:54:48) Deliberate Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:04:32) Parameters for Heat & Cold Exposure (01:08:26) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature, Cold & Heat Exposure (01:12:00) Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:16:20) Tool: Hydration & Sauna (01:17:10) Heat, Endorphins & Dynorphins, Mood (01:28:44) Tool: Glabrous Skin To Heat or Cool (01:35:33) Local Hyperthermia, Converting White Fat to Beige Fat, Metabolism (01:47:00) Hormesis/Mitohormesis & Heat/Cold Exposure (01:49:11) Benefits of Heat Exposure (01:51:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-04-25
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Using Light (Sunlight, Blue Light & Red Light) to Optimize Health | Episode 68

I describe the mechanisms by which different wavelengths of light impact the cells, tissues and organs of the human body, and how specifically timed light exposure of specific wavelengths can be used to improve sleep, enhance alertness, modulate hormone levels, and improve mood. I also explain the use of ultraviolet and infrared phototherapies to relieve pain increase testosterone and estrogen levels; improve skin health, appearance and wound healing; and how red light can be used to offset age-related vision loss and provide neuroprotection. Throughout the episode, I describe the mechanisms of light-based therapies and actionable tools that people can use positively impact mental and physical health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Using Light to Improve Health (00:05:17) Sponsors (00:09:56) Physics of Light, Electromagnetic Energy (00:12:23) Wavelengths of Light (00:15:38) How Light Penetrates Tissues (00:20:13) Light & the Body: Direct & Indirect Signals (00:28:35) Light, Seasonality & Melatonin (00:33:40) Melatonin: Regulatory & Protective Effects (00:38:49) Tools: Optimizing Melatonin Levels (00:44:49) Sun (UVB light) Exposure, Mating Behavior, Testosterone & Estrogen (00:58:09) Seasonality, Romantic Passion & Testosterone (01:02:13) Tool: Skin Sun Exposure & Testosterone (01:06:13) Light & Improved Pain Tolerance (01:11:55) Protocol: Sun Exposure & Chronic Pain (01:12:48) Tools: Sunlight (UVB), Blue-Light Blockers, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) (01:19:44) Light & Enhanced Immune Function (01:23:30) Tool: Light During Winter Months (01:26:18) Light Therapies: Local vs. Systemic Exposure (01:28:54) Tool: Improving Mood, Timing of Natural & Artificial Light (01:32:44) Light Conditions & Sleep Optimization (01:39:00) Infrared Light, Skin & Wound Healing (01:46:00) Infrared Light Therapy & Skin, Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) (01:49:20) Infrared Light & Age-Related Vision Loss (01:59:36) Tools: Infrared Panels, Morning Exposure (02:05:22) Infrared Light at Night, Shift Work (02:08:35) Light Flicker Phototherapy & Neuroprotection (02:19:07) Phototherapies for Health (02:20:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-04-18
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Dr. Kyle Gillett: How to Optimize Your Hormones for Health & Vitality | Episode 67

My guest is Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, a dual board-certified physician in family medicine and obesity medicine and an expert in optimizing hormone levels to improve overall health and well-being in both men and women. We discuss how to improve hormones using behavioral, nutritional, and exercise-based tools and safely and rationally approach supplementation and hormone therapies. We discuss testosterone and estrogen and how those hormones relate to fertility, mood, aging, relationships, disease pathologies, thyroid hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, dopamine and peptides that impact physical and mental health and vitality across the lifespan. The episode is rich with scientific mechanisms and tools for people to consider. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, Hormone Optimization    (00:04:10) Sponsors (00:08:24) Preventative Medicine & Hormone Health  (00:14:17) The Six Pillars of Hormone Health Optimization (00:17:14) Diet for Hormone Health, Blood Testing (00:20:21) Exercise for Hormone Health  (00:21:06) Caloric Restriction, Obesity & Testosterone  (00:23:55) Intermittent Fasting, Growth Hormone (GH), IGF-1 (00:29:08) Sleep Quality & Hormones (00:35:03) Testosterone in Women (00:38:55) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Hair Loss  (00:43:46) DHT in Men and Women, Turmeric/Curcumin, Creatine (00:50:10) 5-Alpha Reductase, Finasteride, Saw Palmetto  (00:52:30) Hair loss, DHT, Creatine Monohydrate (00:55:07) Hair Regrowth, Male Pattern Baldness (00:58:12) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Inositol, DIM (01:04:00) Oral Contraception, Perceived Attractiveness, Fertility  (01:10:31) Testosterone & Marijuana or Alcohol (01:14:27) Sleep Supplement Frequency (01:15:34) Testosterone Supplementation & Prostate Cancer  (01:20:24) Prostate Health, Dietary Fiber, Saw Palmetto, C-Reactive Protein   (01:24:05) Prostate Health & Pelvic Floor, Viagra, Tadalafil  (01:30:54) Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) (01:35:17) Estrogen & Aromatase Inhibitors, Calcium D-Glucarate, DIM  (01:39:28) Lifestyle Factors to Increase Testosterone/Estrogen Levels, Dietary Fats  (01:45:34) Aromatase Supplements: Ecdysterone, Turkesterone (01:47:04) Tongkat Ali (Long Jack), Estrogen/Testosterone levels  (01:52:25) Fadogia Agrestis, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Frequency (01:56:44) Boron, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) (01:58:13) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Fertility (02:04:18) Prolactin & Dopamine, Pituitary Damage  (02:08:34) Augmenting Dopamine Levels: Casein, Gluten, Vitamin E, Vitamin B6 (P5P) (02:12:30) L-Carnitine & Fertility, TMAO & Allicin (Garlic)  (02:18:19) Blood Test Frequency  (02:19:41) Long-Term Relationships & Effects on Hormones (02:25:33) Nesting Instincts: Prolactin, Childbirth & Relationships (02:29:05) Cold & Hot Exposure, Hormones & Fertility (02:32:34) Peptide Hormones: Insulin, Tesamorelin, Ghrelin  (02:37:24) Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) (02:39:38) BPC-157 & Injury, Dosing Frequency (02:45:23) Uses for Melanotan  (02:48:21) Spiritual Health Impact on Mental & Physical Health  (02:54:18) Caffeine & Hormones  (02:56:19) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Review, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-04-11
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Using Deliberate Cold Exposure for Health and Performance | Episode 66

I describe mechanisms by which deliberate cold exposure can enhance mental health, physical health, and performance. I detail specific protocols to safely engage in deliberate cold exposure, including minimal exposure times, time-of-day effects, determining optimal temperatures, recovery, mindset, and movement during cold exposure. I discuss how cold exposure can be used to safely stress the body to improve attention, mood, and cognitive focus and boost metabolism and reduce inflammation. Also, I explain how cold exposure on specific regions of the body (called glabrous skin surfaces) can be leveraged to enhance endurance and weight training and increase work output. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Health Warning (00:04:23) Tool: Moderate Exercise & Cognitive Work (00:11:32) Sponsors (00:15:37) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature (00:18:41) Tool: Quickly Decrease Core Body Temperature, Glabrous Skin (00:25:26) Mental Effects of Cold Exposure (00:29:02) Physical Effects of Cold Exposure (00:30:11) How Cold Should the Temperature Be? (00:34:53) Cold Showers vs. Cold Water Immersion (00:38:27) Protocols for Cold Exposure (00:50:57) Optimal Mindset(s) During Cold Exposure (00:55:26) Tool: Using Movement During Cold Exposure (00:57:51) Optimal Frequency of Cold Exposure (01:00:22) Cold Exposure for Dopamine, Mood & Focus (01:12:55) Cold Exposure & Metabolism, Brown Fat (01:25:55) Tool: Caffeine, Dopamine & Cold Exposure (01:29:14) Tools: Increasing Metabolism w/Cold ? The Søberg Principle, Shivering (01:34:15) Norepinephrine & Fat Cells (01:36:22) Cold, Physical Performance, Inflammation (01:47:36) Hyperthermia & Glabrous Skin Cooling (01:53:27) Tool: Palmar Cooling & Endurance (02:03:18) Cold Exposure to Groin, Increasing Testosterone (02:07:50) Tool: Optimal Timing for Daily Cold Exposure (02:11:16) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-04-04
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Dr. Andy Galpin: How to Build Strength, Muscle Size & Endurance | Episode 65

My guest is Dr. Andy Galpin, Professor of Kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, and one of the foremost experts in the world on the science and application of methods to increase strength, hypertrophy and endurance performance. We discuss fundamental principles of strength and hypertrophy training and building endurance, the mechanisms underlying them and we review specific protocols to optimize training and recovery. We also discuss hydration, sleep, nutrition, supplements, and mental tools that can be leveraged to accelerate adaptations leading to enhanced strength, muscle growth and/or endurance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Andy Galpin, Strength & Endurance Training   (00:03:55) Sponsors (00:08:20) Adaptations of Exercise, Progressive Overload  (00:14:40) Modifiable Variables, One-Rep Max, Muscle Soreness (00:27:30) Modifiable Variables of Strength Training, Supersets   (00:43:50) How to Select Training Frequency: Strength vs. Hypertrophy  (00:58:45) Hypertrophy Training, Repetition Ranges, Blood Flow Restriction  (01:08:50) Tools: Protocols for Strength Training, the 3 by 5 Concept  (01:10:48) Mind-Muscle Connection  (01:16:16) Mental Awareness  (01:27:57) Breathing Tools for Resistance Training & Post-Training  (01:37:25) Endurance Training & Combining with Strength (01:51:20) Tools: Protocols for Endurance Training (02:08:15) Muscular Endurance, Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscle  (02:16:35) Hydration & the Galpin Equation, Sodium, Fasting    (02:35:57) Cold Exposure & Training   (02:43:15) Heat Exposure & Training  (02:53:47) Recovery   (03:04:02) Tool: Sodium Bicarbonate (03:17:26) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate (03:20:08) Absolute Rest (03:29:08) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-03-28
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Controlling Sugar Cravings & Metabolism with Science-Based Tools | Episode 64

I explain how to blunt sugar cravings through fundamental knowledge of how sugar is sensed, metabolized, and utilized within the body. I explain how sugar is processed through the digestive tract and nervous system and how both the taste and nutritive components of sugar can lead to specific appetite changes and cravings. I discuss the connection between sugar, dopamine, and cravings and outline many tools to curb sugar cravings, specifically craving highly processed refined sugars. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Sugar & Physiology (00:03:13) Sponsors (00:07:40) Sugar & the Brain (00:10:06) Appetite & Hormones: Ghrelin & Insulin (00:14:17) Glucose & Brain Function (00:24:19) Glucose & Physical Activity (00:26:16) Fructose vs. Glucose (00:32:41) When to Eat High-Sugar Foods? (00:35:01) Sugar?s Taste vs. Nutritive Pathways, Sugar Cravings (00:41:46) Tool: Sugar & the Dopamine, Pleasure ? Pain Dichotomy (00:48:43) Subconscious Sugar Circuits, Hidden Sugars in Food (00:58:03) Glucose Metabolism in the Brain (01:03:00) Tool: Glycemic Index, Blunting Sugar Cravings (01:12:08) Sugary Drinks, Highly Refined Sugars (01:14:33) Artificial Sweeteners (01:22:36) ADHD, Omega-3s (01:30:18) Tools: Reduce Sugar Cravings with EPA Omega-3s & Glutamine (01:35:15) Tool: Blunt Sugar Peaks & Craving with Lemon Juice (01:43:09) Tool: Reduce Sugar Cravings & Spikes with Cinnamon (01:45:10) Berberine, Sustained Low Blood Glucose Levels (01:51:24) Tool: Sleep & Sugar Cravings (01:56:33) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-03-21
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Using Salt to Optimize Mental & Physical Performance | Episode 63

I discuss the role of salt (sodium) in the nervous system and the key role that it plays in mental performance, physical performance and health. I explain how the brain senses salt levels in our body and how that relates to our feelings of thirst. I cover the physiology of the renal system and the hormones that control sodium and water balance in our body. I also explore how salt interacts with stress and our immune systems and its crucial role in neuron function. Additionally, I examine research findings suggesting that some individuals might benefit from increased intake of sodium and other electrolytes (magnesium and potassium) to enhance mental performance, lessen anxiety, and offset dizziness. Yet, other people may need less sodium. I discuss how you can determine your optimal sodium intake and why sodium intake levels need to be uniquely tailored to an individual?s lifestyle. Finally, I explain how salt creates ?hidden? sugars in many processed foods and the problems that can create. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed findings outlining salt?s essential role in overall health and describe general recommendations and tools anyone can use to find their optimal salt balance and thereby enhance their brain and body?s performance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Role of Salt  (00:02:57) Neuropod Cells, Artificial Sweeteners & ?Hidden? Cravings  (00:10:57) Sponsors (00:15:06) Salt Regulation  (00:17:13) How the Brain Senses Salt (00:24:15) Salt & Thirst  (00:29:27) Blood Pressure & Thirst  (00:33:47) Kidneys & Urine Regulation (00:39:08) Vasopressin: Roles in Libido & Urination  (00:45:46) How Much Salt Do You Need?  (00:56:45) Should You Increase Your Salt Intake?  (01:02:19) Tools: Determining Your Individual Salt Intake (01:14:02) Iodine, Sea Salt  (01:17:13) Salt: Roles in Stress & Anxiety  (01:24:20) Other Electrolytes: Magnesium & Potassium  (01:27:57) Tools: Effects of Low-carbohydrate Diets & Caffeine  (01:32:28) General Recommendations for Salt Intake  (01:36:34) Perception of Salt & Sugar Taste, Processed Foods  (01:47:13) Role of Sodium in Neuronal Function, Action Potentials  (01:53:13) Dehydration  (01:55:36) What Salt Intake is Best for You?  (02:00:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-03-14
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Dr. Justin Sonnenburg: How to Build, Maintain & Repair Gut Health | Episode 62

My guest this episode is Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Stanford University. Dr. Sonnenburg?s research focuses on how microbes in our gut impact our mental and physical health and how diet and your environment shape your gut microbiome. We discuss the architecture of the gut microbiome and microbiota variability in different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and how these can change in response to diet, environment or genetics. We explore the early establishment of your microbiome and how your mode of delivery into the world (C-section or not) shapes your gut. We also discuss lifestyle factors that can alter your microbiome and the integral role the gut microbiome plays in communicating to other organs, including your brain. Dr. Sonnenburg details his recent clinical study, which found that diets rich in fermented foods (but not fiber) increase microbiota diversity and reduce signals of inflammation. Additionally, we examine how foods typical in Western Diets (e.g., high fat, low fiber, processed foods) can negatively impact the gut microbiome. Throughout the episode, we discuss actionable tools from peer-reviewed clinical findings that anyone can implement, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their gut microbiome and health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Gut Microbiome (00:04:16) Sponsors (00:08:30) What is the Gut Microbiome? (00:12:49) Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract & Microbiota Variability (00:16:00) Breast Feeding, C-Sections & Pets (00:21:56) The Human Microbiome Project at Stanford (00:26:30) Traditional vs. Industrialized Populations (00:28:58) Resilience of the Microbiome (00:35:10) Regional Differences Along Your GI Tract (00:42:04) Fasting, Cleanses & Gut Health (00:51:19) Dietary Differences (01:01:24) Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates, Processed Foods (01:07:03) Artificial & Plant-based Sweeteners (01:12:44) Cleanses: Useful? Harmful? (01:14:50) Your Microbiome & Your Immune System (01:20:17) Dietary Fiber & Fermented Foods (01:32:13) High-Fiber vs. High-Fermented Diet; Inflammation (01:41:33) Ripple Effects of a Healthy Diet (01:45:00) Does a High-Fiber Diet Make Inflammation Worse? (01:47:22) Over Sterilized Environments (01:50:15) The Gut Microbiome?s Effect on Physiology (01:56:45) Gut-Brain Connection (01:59:30) Probiotics: Benefits & Risks (02:04:20) Prebiotics: Essential? (02:07:00) Tools for Enhancing Your Gut Microbiota (02:11:12) Dr. Sonnenburg?s Research, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-03-07
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How to Enhance Your Gut Microbiome for Brain & Overall Health | Episode 61

In this episode, I discuss the profound effect the gut has on the nervous system. I cover the structure and function of the gut-brain axis and the role of the gut microbiome in the brain and overall health. I describe how the gut controls hunger or satiety by affecting neurons in our brain. I also contrast the many pathways by which the gut influences the brain: direct vs. indirect pathways, chemical vs. mechanical, and fast vs. slow signaling. Additionally, I discuss what defines a healthy microbiome and how your lifestyle impacts the gut microbiome, including the effects of stress, fasting, antibiotics, pets, environment, prebiotics and probiotics. I address how different foods shape the gut microbiome, in particular, the emerging data that fermented foods can increase the diversity of healthy gut microbiota. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed and textbook findings that reveal the critical role of the gut microbiome in supporting mental and physical health and I outline simple tools that anyone can use in order to enhance their gut microbiome health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Gut Microbiome  (00:03:02) Sponsors (00:06:55) Your Gut-Brain Axis  (00:09:44) Gut-Brain Anatomy (00:15:32) Microbiota vs. Gut Microbiome  (00:20:01) Roles of Gut Microbiome  (00:23:03) Neuropod Cells: (Subconscious) Tasting with Your Stomach  (00:34:13) Ghrelin: Slow Modulation of Your Brain in Hunger (00:38:02) Glucagon Like Peptide 1; GLP-1  (00:42:22) Tools: ?Free Will? & Food Cravings  (00:44:46) Mechanical Cues from Gut to Brain (00:49:05) Dopamines, Vomiting  (00:52:06) Indirect Signals from Gut Microbiota (00:59:30) Gut Microbiome ?Critical Periods?  (01:03:08) How Gut Health Controls Overall Health  (01:12:25) What is a Healthy Gut Microbiome? (01:15:00) Tools: Enhance Your Gut Microbiome (01:23:49) Foods to Enhance Microbiota Diversity; Fermented Foods  (01:37:07) High-Fiber Diets & Inflammation (01:40:58) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners  (01:44:27) Structure & Function of Gut-Brain Axis  (01:49:47) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-02-28
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Dr. David Spiegel: Using Hypnosis to Enhance Mental & Physical Health & Performance | Episode 60

My guest is Dr. David Spiegel MD, Associate Chair of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Director of the Center on Stress and Health and Director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Spiegel has more than 40 years of clinical and research experience with hypnosis, stress physiology, and psychotherapy. In this episode, we examine the role of clinical hypnosis for the treatment of trauma, chronic pain, anxiety and more. Dr. Spiegel explains how to determine your level of ?hypnotizability? and provides case studies of incredible successes with hypnosis to treat a variety of ailments. We also discuss how breathing, vision and directed mental focus can modulate internal states and enhance performance. Additionally, we discuss how the adoption of self-hypnosis techniques can reduce stress and enhance sleep in anyone. Dr. Spiegel teaches us how hypnosis works at the neural circuit level to enhance cognitive flexibility. Throughout the episode, Dr. Spiegel summarizes key clinical trials and peer-reviewed findings and resources to work with a trained clinical professional or to do guided self-hypnosis.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Spiegel MD, Hypnosis (00:04:16) Sponsors (00:09:09) Clinical Hypnosis (00:16:45) Stage Hypnosis (00:20:25) Neurobiology of Hypnosis (00:26:04) ADHD (00:28:22) Hypnosis for Stress & Sleep (00:32:12) Hypnosis to Strengthen Neural Connections (00:37:19) Restructuring Trauma Narratives (00:45:14) Ketamine Therapy (00:50:07) Self-directed Hypnosis, Reveri (00:56:53) Eliminating Obsessive Thoughts, Superstitions (01:01:50) ?Hypnotizability?, the Spiegel Eye-roll Test (01:15:36) EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing) (01:21:43) Confronting Stress & Trauma (01:27:56) The Mind-Body Connection (01:31:35) Dealing with Grief (01:35:45) Hypnosis in Children & Groups (01:40:06) Drug Therapies & Hypnosis (01:42:39) Breathing Patterns, Peak Performance (01:50:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-02-21
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The Science of Love, Desire and Attachment | Episode 59

In this episode, I discuss the psychology and biology of desire, love and attachment. I explain how childhood attachment types are thought to inform adult attachment styles to romantic partners, and I describe some of the major theories of human mate selection, relationships and infidelity. Additionally, I explore the neurobiology and proposed subconscious processing underlying desire, love and attachment, including the roles of empathy and ?positive delusion." I outline how self-awareness can shift one?s relationship attachment style towards securely bonded partnerships. Finally, I describe specific tools and supplements that have been researched to increase libido and sex drive. Throughout the episode, I explain the science and key mechanisms underlying romantic love and outline tools for those seeking to find a strong, healthy relationship, or for those wanting to strengthen an existing relationship.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Desire, Love & Attachment  (00:02:59) Odor, Perceived Attractiveness & Birth Control (00:08:04) Sponsors (00:14:13) Romance: Balancing Love & Desire (00:19:00) Animal Studies, Vasopressin & Monogamy  (00:22:06) Strange Situation Task, Childhood Attachment Styles (00:32:52) Adult Attachment Styles (00:38:50) Secure Attachment  (00:41:23) Autonomic Arousal: The ?See-Saw? (00:50:39) Tool: Self-Awareness, Healthy Interdependence (00:53:11) Neurobiology of Desire, Love & Attachment   (00:58:02) Empathy & Mating & the Autonomic Nervous System (01:10:02) Positive Delusion, Touch (01:15:20) Relationship Stability  (01:21:22) Selecting Mates, Recognition of Autonomic Tone (01:38:28) Neural Mechanisms of Romantic Attachment  (01:47:43) Autonomic Coordination in Relationships  (01:56:13) Infidelity & Cheating (02:08:56) ?Chemistry?, Subconscious Processes (02:12:44) Tools: Libido & Sex Drive  (02:20:20) Maca (Maca root)   (02:25:58) Tongkat Ali (Longjack)  (02:28:56) Tribulus terrestris  (02:33:14) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify/Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-02-14
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Using Play to Rewire & Improve Your Brain | Episode 58

In this episode, I discuss the transformative nature of play?how it changes our feelings, thoughts and actions and indeed, how it can rewire our brain to function better in all contexts. I explain the role of play in childhood, as well as adulthood in skill and social development and describe key characteristics of the mind and body during play. Additionally, I explore how play allows the brain to test contingencies in different roles/environments. Throughout, I discuss the underlying neurobiology of play. I also describe how low-stakes play, and tinkering can broaden and shape your future capabilities. Finally, I discuss how our childhood ?personal play identity? informs our adult personality. Throughout the episode, I use the science of play to outline recommendations for using play as a means to enhance neuroplasticity and explore novel situations, regardless of age. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) The Power of Play (00:02:23) Tool: Reading on Smart Phones, Sighing & Learning (00:09:14) Sponsors (00:13:57) Homeostatic Regulation of Play (00:23:53) Childhood Play & Mindsets (00:29:21) Contingency Testing (00:32:17) The (Power of) Playful Mindset (00:36:13) Body Postures (00:44:03) Rule Testing & Breaking (00:48:24) Role Play (00:50:39) Neurobiology of Low-stakes Play (00:54:22) Expanding Capabilities through Tinkering (01:00:03) Play Is THE Portal to Neuroplasticity (01:04:44) Adulthood Play (01:10:14) Fire Together, Wire Together (01:18:03) Trauma & Play Deficits & Recovery (01:23:25) Competition & Dynamic Movement (01:27:36) Chess, Mental Roles, Novelty (01:32:52) Personal Play Identity (01:37:24) Play Transforms Your Future Self (01:40:55) Recommendations for Play (01:44:25) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify/Apple Reviews, YouTube, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-02-07
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Optimizing Workspace for Productivity, Focus, & Creativity | Episode 57

In this episode, I discuss ways to set up your workspace to optimize productivity, focus and creativity. I discuss how to adjust light, physically arrange your work environment, and leverage body posture to enhance productivity. Additionally, I explore how to shift your work environment for particular types of tasks. Moreover, I review the role of body movement in the workspace. I also discuss sound-based tools that can either enhance or diminish cognitive functioning (the ability to focus on deep work). I describe a particular frequency of binaural beats that studies show can be used to enhance memory and recall. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed findings practical tools anyone can use, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their workspace to achieve heightened levels of productivity, increased alertness and focus, and creativity. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Arranging Environment for Focus (00:02:40) Sponsors (00:07:55) How to Increase Focus (00:10:02) Lighting Your Work in Phase 1 (00:16:00) Lighting Your Work in Phase 2 (00:19:45) Lighting Your Work in Phase 3 (00:24:17) Where to Look While You Work (00:28:02) Arranging Your Environment (00:31:24) Body Posture (00:34:22) How Long to Do Deep Work (00:36:50) Set the Right Visual Window Size (00:42:15) 45 min / 5 min Rule (00:44:23) The Cathedral Effect: Analytic vs Creative Work (00:55:50) Leveraging Background Noise (01:02:20) Binaural Beats for Work (01:06:38) The Best Binaural Frequency for Work (01:11:17) How Binaural Beats Increase Focus (01:13:56) Minimizing Interruptions (01:20:01) Sit or Stand, or Both? (01:25:18) Movement in the Workspace (01:31:00) Summary & Shifting Work Environments (01:39:36) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-01-31
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Dr. Alia Crum: Science of Mindsets for Health & Performance | Episode 56

My guest is Dr. Alia Crum, Associate (tenured) Professor of Psychology at Stanford University and Director of the Stanford Mind & Body Lab. Dr. Crum is a world expert on mindsets and beliefs and how they shape our responses to stress, exercise, and even to the foods we eat. We discuss how our mindset about the nutritional content of food changes whether it is satisfying to us at a physiological (hormonal and metabolic) level. She also tells how mindsets about exercise can dramatically alter the effects of exercise on weight loss, blood pressure, and other health metrics. Dr. Crum teaches us how to think about stress in ways that allow stress to grow us and bring out our best rather than diminish our health and performance. Throughout the episode, Dr. Crum provides descriptions of high-quality peer-reviewed scientific findings that we can all leverage toward better health and performance in our lives. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Alia Crum from Stanford University (00:03:15) Sponsors (00:08:26) What Is a Mindset & What Does It Do?  (00:14:45) Mindsets Change Our Biological Responses to Food (00:22:28) Beliefs About Our Food Matter (00:25:57) Placebo vs Beliefs vs Nocebo Effects (00:28:57) Mindset (Dramatically) Impacts the Effects of Exercise (00:33:44) Motivational Messaging & Mindset About Fitness (00:39:30) The Power of a ?Potency & Indulgence? Mindset (00:42:03) Mindsets About Sleep, Tracking Sleep  (00:45:00) Making Stress Work For (or Against) You (01:01:50) Mindsets Link Our Conscious & Subconscious (01:04:50) 3 Best Ways to Leverage Stress (01:10:40) 4 Things That Shape Mindsets, Influencers & Mindsets (01:19:40) Mindsets About Medicines & Side Effects (01:26:25) How to Teach Mindsets (01:31:47) Dr. Crum?s Research, Clinical & Athletic Backgrounds (01:36:20) The Stanford Mind & Body Lab, Resources for Stress (01:38:30) Synthesis, Participating in Research (01:39:04) Subscribe, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-01-24
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The Science of Setting & Achieving Goals | Episode 55

In this episode, I discuss the science of setting, assessing, and pursuing goals. I explain the neural (brain) circuits that underlie goal setting and pursuit. Then I describe nine science-supported tools anyone can apply toward their goals. I explain when and how to use goal visualization, when to use multitasking and how to use specific rewards to improve the likelihood of reaching your goals. I also explain why envisioning failures and their consequences are effective and how to set goals of the appropriate level of challenge. I also explain how the molecule dopamine is used to gauge our progress toward milestones and long-term overarching goals and how to leverage dopamine for goal pursuit. Finally, I explain a unique tool called 'space-time bridging' that can be used to support all aspects of goal setting, assessment, and pursuit. This episode ought to be useful for anyone seeking to improve their performance in work, school, exercise, athletics, or personal development. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) The Neuroscience of Goals (00:01:56) Tool 1: Learn Fast(er) by the 85% Rule  (00:06:04) Sponsors (00:13:55) Brain Circuits for Setting & Pursuing Goals (00:21:52) Determining the Value of Goals  (00:24:33) Psychology of Goal Setting: Assessing Value, Action Steps (00:30:29) Peripersonal Space vs. Extrapersonal Space (00:35:39) Visually Focusing on a Goal Line Improves Performance (00:43:50) How Vision Improves Performance: Blood Pressure (00:51:55) Tool 2: Use Focal Vision to Initiate Goal Pursuit (00:54:40) Tool 3: Use Aged Self-Images to Self-Motivate  (00:59:33) Tool 4: Visualization of Goals is Only Helpful at the Start  (01:02:05) Tool 5: Visualizing Failure is the Best Ongoing Motivator (01:07:26) Tool 6: Make Goals Moderately Lofty  (01:13:05) Tool 7: Avoid Goal Distraction; Focus on 1-2 Major Goals Per Year (01:15:57) Tool 8: Ensure Specificity of Goals, Weekly Assessment (01:19:57) Dopamine, Motivation & Pleasure in Seeking Goals (01:22:43) Dopamine Reward Prediction Error, Controlling Dopamine (01:34:26) How Dopamine Influences Vision & Vice Versa (01:38:10) Interim Summary of Goal-Pursuit Steps (01:39:50) Tool 9: Space-Time Bridging  (01:49:59) Summary (01:51:50) Subscribe, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-01-17
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Dr. Jack Feldman: Breathing for Mental & Physical Health & Performance | Episode 54

This episode my guest is Dr. Jack Feldman, Distinguished Professor of Neurobiology at the University of California, Los Angeles and a pioneering world expert in the science of respiration (breathing). We discuss how and why humans breathe the way we do, the function of the diaphragm and how it serves to increase oxygenation of the brain and body. We discuss how breathing influences mental state, fear, memory, reaction time, and more. And we discuss specific breathing protocols such as box-breathing, cyclic hyperventilation (similar to Wim Hof breathing), nasal versus mouth breathing, unilateral breathing, and how these each affect the brain and body. We discuss physiological sighs, peptides expressed by specific neurons controlling breathing, and magnesium compounds that can improve cognitive ability and how they work. This conversation serves as a sort of "Master Class" on the science of breathing and breathing-related tools for health and performance.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Our Breath Collective https://www.ourbreathcollective.com/huberman  Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Jack Feldman (00:03:05) Sponsors (00:10:35) Why We Breathe  (00:14:35) Neural Control of Breathing: ?Pre-Botzinger Complex? (00:16:20) Nose vs Mouth Breathing (00:18:18) Skeletal vs. Smooth Muscles: Diaphragm, Intracostals & Airway Muscles (00:20:11) Two Breathing Oscillators: Pre-Botzinger Complex & Parafacial Nucleus (00:26:20) How We Breathe Is Special (Compared to Non-Mammals) (00:33:40) Stomach & Chest Movements During Breathing (00:36:23) Physiological Sighs, Alveoli Re-Filling, Bombesin (00:49:39) If We Don?t Sigh, Our Lung (& General) Health Suffers (01:00:42) Breathing, Brain States & Emotions  (01:05:34) Meditating Mice, Eliminating Fear  (01:11:00) Brain States, Amygdala, Locked-In Syndrome, Laughing (01:16:25) Facial Expressions (01:19:00) Locus Coeruleus & Alertness (01:29:40) Breath Holds, Apnea, Episodic Hypoxia, Hypercapnia (01:35:22) Stroke, Muscle Strength, TBI (01:38:08) Cyclic Hyperventilation (01:39:50) Hyperbaric Chambers (01:40:41) Nasal Breathing, Memory, Right vs. Left Nostril (01:44:50) Breathing Coordinates Everything: Reaction Time, Fear, etc. (01:57:13) Dr. Feldman?s Breathwork Protocols, Post-Lunch  (02:02:05) Deliberately Variable Breathwork: The Feldman Protocol (02:06:29) Magnesium Threonate & Cognition & Memory  (02:18:27) Gratitude for Dr. Feldman?s Highly Impactful Work (02:20:53) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-01-10
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LIFESPAN: The Science Behind Why We Age | Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair | Episode 1

I am honored to share the first episode of the new podcast, Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair.  Dr. Sinclair is a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School. He is also the co-director of Harvard Medical School's Paul F. Glenn Center for Biology of Aging Research.  David is both a friend and a colleague, and I am delighted to have helped him in the creation of this new podcast. It will be an 8-episode series that provides a deep dive into the science behind why we age and the newest research on what we can do to slow, stop and even reverse aging.  While we have Episode 1 of the Lifespan podcast here, please be sure to navigate over to the Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair podcast channel to subscribe. New episodes will come out every Wednesday for the next 8 weeks. I am certain that you will both enjoy it and learn from it. Show notes for this episode can be found on the Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair podcast channel. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-01-05
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The Science of Making & Breaking Habits | Episode 53

In this episode, I review the science of habit formation and habit elimination and how the process of neuroplasticity (brain rewiring) underlies these processes. I describe two new systems for habit formation. The first system is grounded in the neuroscience of brain states and our ability to perform (and to avoid) certain tasks at different phases of the 24-hour day. The second system focuses on 21-day habit formation and consolidation. I also discuss "task bracketing" as an approach to enhancing habit formation and eliminating unwanted habits and the neural circuits that underlie task bracketing in the basal ganglia (a brain region for generating and stopping behaviors). I also review the science of dopamine rewards and how to apply that knowledge to shaping habits. The science and tools in this episode ought to be helpful for anyone looking to build better habits and eliminate unwanted habits for school, work, fitness, relationships, creative endeavors, and more?indeed for any person or situation where behavioral changes are needed. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Habits; New Programs (00:02:30) Sponsors (00:06:52) Habits versus Reflexes, Learning, Neuroplasticity (00:08:51) Goal-Based Habits vs. Identity-Based Habits (00:11:40) How Long It (Really) Takes to Form a Habit; Limbic-Friction (00:16:07) Linchpin Habits  (00:18:55) Mapping Your Habits; Habit Strength, Context-Dependence (00:22:55) Automaticity (00:24:03) Tool 1: Applying Procedural Memory Visualizations (00:27:48) Hebbian Learning, NMDA receptors (00:31:00) Tool 2: Task Bracketing; Dorsolateral Striatum (00:37:08) States of Mind, Not Scheduling Time Predicts Habit Strength (00:38:16) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 1 (00:46:29) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 2 (00:55:24) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 3 (01:01:34) Habit Flexibility (01:04:57) Should We Reward Ourselves? How? When? When NOT to. (01:10:30) Tool 4: ?Dopamine Spotlighting? & Task Bracketing (01:18:22) Tool 5: The 21-Day Habit Installation & Testing System (01:28:26) Breaking Habits: Long-Term (Synaptic) Depression (01:35:49) Notifications Don?t Work (01:37:50) Tool 6: Break Bad Habits with Post-Bad-Habit ?Positive Cargo? (01:44:26) Addictions as Habits: https://hubermanlab.com/dr-anna-lembke-understanding-and-treating-addiction (01:45:28) Conclusion & Synthesis  (01:48:27) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2022-01-03
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Dr. David Sinclair: The Biology of Slowing & Reversing Aging | Episode 52

In this episode, I am joined by Dr. David Sinclair, tenured Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and an expert researcher in the field of longevity. Dr. Sinclair is also the author of the book Lifespan: Why We Age & Why We Don't Have To, and the host of the Lifespan Podcast, which launches January 5, 2022.  In this interview, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging and what we all can do to slow or reverse the aging process. We discuss fasting and supplementation with resveratrol, NAD, metformin, and NMN. We also discuss the use of caffeine, exercise, cold exposure, and why excessive iron load is bad for us. We discuss food choices for offsetting aging and promoting autophagy (clearance of dead cells). And we discuss the key blood markers everyone should monitor to determine your biological versus chronological age. We also discuss the future of longevity research and technology. This episode includes lots of basic science and specific, actionable protocols, right down to the details of what to do and when. By the end, you will have in-depth knowledge of the biology of aging and how to offset it. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Sinclair, Harvard Medical School (00:03:30) Sponsors (00:07:45) ?Aging as a Disease? vs. Longevity & Anti-Aging (00:10:23) What Causes Aging? The Epigenome (00:15:53) Cosmetic Aging  (00:17:15) Development Never Stops, Horvath Clock (00:20:12) Puberty Rate as a Determinant of Aging Rate (00:23:00) Fasting, Hunger & Food Choices (00:32:44) Fasting Schedules, Long Fasts, (Macro)Autophagy (00:34:50) Caffeine, Electrolytes  (00:35:56) Blood Glucose & the Sirtuins; mTOR (00:37:55) Amino Acids: Leucine, ?Pulsing? (00:44:35) Metformin, Berberine (00:50:29) Resveratrol, Wine (00:53:20) What Breaks a Fast? (00:56:45) Resveratrol, NAD, NMN, NR; Dosage, Timing (01:09:10) Are Artificial Sweeteners Bad for Us? (01:12:04) Iron Load & Aging (01:15:05) Blood Work Analysis (01:19:37) C-Reactive Protein, Cholesterol: Serum & Dietary (01:26:02) Amino Acids, Plants, Antioxidants (01:33:45) Behaviors That Extend Lifespan, Testosterone, Estrogen (01:40:35) Neuroplasticity & Neural Repair (01:46:19) Ice Baths, Cold Showers, ?Metabolic Winter? (01:48:07) Obesity & How It Accelerates Aging, GnRH  (01:52:10) Methylation, Methylene Blue, Cigarettes  (01:56:17) X-Rays   (01:59:00) Public Science Education, Personal Health (02:05:40) The Sinclair Test You Can Take: www.doctorsinclair.com (02:08:13) Zero-Cost Support & Resources, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-12-27
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Science of Social Bonding in Family, Friendship & Romantic Love | Episode 51

This episode I discuss the science of social bonding- the process by which we form attachments. I explain the neural and hormonal basis for "social homeostasis" (our drive for a given amount of socializing) which reveals why we get lonely, why we seek out connection with others and how power dynamics (hierarchies) shape those connections. I also discuss the neurochemical basis of introversion and extroversion, of trust and how shared experiences that promote similar physiological states in two or more individuals, leads to more rapid bonding. I also discuss how food and oxytocin play key roles in social bonding. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed science and practical tools for anyone seeking to find, build or end relationships. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Social Bonding: Child-Parent, Romantic, Friendship, Breakups (00:02:55) Sponsors (00:07:08) Social Bonding as a Biological Process (00:10:03) Social Isolation (00:13:32) Social Homeostasis & Neural Circuits for Social Drive  (00:18:55) Brain Areas & (Neuro)Chemistry of Social Drive  (00:22:48) What is Social Homeostasis & Dopamine (00:27:00) When We Lack Social Interactions: Short- Versus Long-Term (00:28:10) Introverts & Extroverts (00:31:00) ?Good? Versus ?Bad? Social Interactions & Hierarchies (00:33:54) Loneliness & Dorsal Raphe Nucleus & Social Hunger  (00:37:33) Tools (00:38:05) Socializing & Food Appetite: Crossover Craving (00:42:45) Falling in Love (00:45:05) Tools for Social Bonds: Merging Physiologies; Story (00:53:54) Childhood Attachment Patterns in Adulthood (01:03:45) Attachment Styles: Autonomic Versus Intellectual Attachment (01:06:10) Emotional Empathy & Cognitive Empathy, Arguing (01:09:45) Allan N. Schore & ?Right Brain Psychotherapy? (01:10:40) Oxytocin & Trust, In Males Versus Females, Hormonal Glue (01:16:10) Repairing Broken Bonds to Self & Others (01:18:56) Social (Media) Butterflies: Biological Basis (01:24:08) Key Points for Bonding & Understanding Social Bonds (01:27:07) Breaking Up (01:28:36) Synthesis  (01:31:17) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-12-20
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Dr. David Berson: Understanding Your Brain's Logic & Function | Episode 50

In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Berson, Professor & Chairman of Neuroscience at Brown University. Dr. Berson discovered the neurons in your eye that set your biological rhythms for sleep, wakefulness, mood and appetite. He is also a world-renowned teacher of basic and advanced neuroscience, having taught thousands of university lectures on this topic. Many of his students have become world-leading neuroscientists and teachers themselves.  Here Dr. Berson takes us on a structured journey into and around the nervous system, explaining: how we perceive the world and our internal landscape, how we balance, see, and remember. Also, how we learn and perform reflexive and deliberate actions, how we visualize and imagine in our mind, and how the various circuits of the brain coordinate all these incredible feats.  We discuss practical and real-life examples of neural circuit function across the lifespan. Dr. Berson gives us a masterclass in the nervous system?one that, in just less than two hours, will teach you an entire course's worth about the brain and how yours works. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Berson  (00:02:55) Sponsors (00:08:02) How We See  (00:10:02) Color Vision  (00:13:47) ?Strange? Vision (00:16:56) How You Orient In Time (00:25:45) Body Rhythms, Pineal function, Light & Melatonin, Blueblockers (00:34:45) Spending Times Outdoors Improves Eyesight  (00:36:20) Sensation, Mood, & Self-Image (00:41:03) Sense of Balance (00:50:43) Why Pigeons Bob Their Heads, Motion Sickness  (01:00:03) Popping Ears (01:02:35) Midbrain & Blindsight  (01:10:44) Why Tilted Motion Feels Good  (01:13:24) Reflexes vs. Deliberate Actions (01:16:35) Basal Ganglia & the ?2 Marshmallow Test? (01:24:40) Suppressing Reflexes: Cortex  (01:33:33) Neuroplasticity  (01:36:27) What is a Connectome? (01:45:20) How to Learn (More About the Brain) (01:49:04) Book Suggestion, my Berson Appreciation (01:50:20) Zero-Cost ways to Support the HLP, Guest Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-12-13
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Erasing Fears & Traumas Based on the Modern Neuroscience of Fear | Episode 49

In this episode, I discuss fear and trauma, including the neural circuits involved in the "threat reflex" and how specific experiences and memories come to activate that system. I also discuss how our body is involved in trauma and fear. First, I describe the logic of fear mechanisms and how "top-down" processing-- meaning connections from the parts of the brain that assign meaning to our feelings, are involved in fear and erasing fears and traumas. Then I discuss what successful fear and trauma treatment must include and consider various treatments for whether they meet that standard, such as EMDR, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Ketamine, other drug-assisted therapies, and more. I also review new data on how 5 minutes per day of deliberate, self-imposed stress can erase fear and depression. And I review the role that social connection plays in erasing or maintaining fears by activating specific molecular pathways in the brain and body. Finally, I review supplementation with over-the-counter compounds for their effects on anxiety and fear and when to take them, if at all.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Fear, Trauma & Trauma  (00:02:15) Sponsors (00:06:49) What is Fear?  (00:11:45) Autonomic Arousal: ?Alertness? vs. ?Calmness? (00:13:44) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA axis) (00:17:36) ?The Threat Reflex?: Neural Circuits for Fear (00:28:24) Controlling Fear: Top-Down Processing (00:32:27) Narratives: ?Protective or Dangerous? (00:35:58) Attaching Fear to Events: Classical Conditioning & Memory (00:41:45) How Fear Learning Occurs: Long Term Potentiation, NMDA (00:46:10) Extinguishing (Reducing) Fears (00:50:25) Cognitive (Narrative) Therapies for Fear (00:57:56) Repetition of Narrative, Overwriting Bad Experiences with Good (01:05:28) EMDR: Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (01:14:00) Social Connection & Isolation Are Chemically Powerful (01:18:23) Trans-Generational Trauma (01:25:00) PTSD Treatments: Ketamine, MDMA, oxytocin (01:39:25) How Do You Know If You Are Traumatized?  (01:46:16) Deliberate Brief Stress Can Erase Fears & Trauma (01:49:50) Erasing Fears & Traumas In 5 Minutes Per Day (01:59:42) Nutrition, Sleep, & Other General Support Erasing Fear & Trauma (02:02:30) Supplements for Anxiety, Fear: Saffron, Inositol, Kava (02:10:00) Synthesis  (02:11:46) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-12-06
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Dr. David Buss: How Humans Select & Keep Romantic Partners in Short & Long Term | Episode 48

In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Buss, Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas, Austin, and one of the founding members of the field of evolutionary psychology. Dr. Buss describes his work on how people select mates for short and long-term relationships, the dynamics of human courtship, and mate value assessment ? meaning how people measure up as potential partners. We also discuss the causes of infidelity and differences for infidelity in men and women. He explains how people evaluate and try to alter other people?s mate value as a means to secure and even poach mates. We discuss monogamous and non-monogamous relationships in humans. And we discuss what Dr. Buss calls ?the dark triad?? features common in stalkers and narcissists that relate to sexual and psychological violence in relationships. This episode is sure to be of interest to anyone single or in a relationship who seeks to know how people select mates and anyone who is interested in forming and maintaining healthy romantic partnerships.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. David Buss (00:04:10) Sponsors (00:08:33) Choosing a Mate (00:13:40) Long Term Mates: Universal Desires (00:18:31) What Women & Men Seek in Long-Term Mates (00:25:10) Age Differences & Mating History  (00:32:20) Deception in Courtship (00:37:30) Emotional Stability (00:38:40) Lying About Long-Term Interest (00:41:56) Short-Term Mating Criteria, Sliding Standards & Context Effects (00:46:25) Sexual Infidelity: Variety Seeking & (Un)happiness & Mate Switching (00:54:25) Genetic Cuckolds, How Ovulation Impacts Mate Preference (00:57:00) Long-Term vs. Short-Term Cheating, Concealment (00:59:15) Emotional & Financial Infidelity (01:04:35) Contraception  (01:06:22) Status & Mating Success (01:10:10) Jealousy, Mate Value Discrepancies, Vigilance, Violence (01:24:13) Specificity of Intimate Partner Violence   (01:25:12) Mate Retention Tactics: Denigration, Guilt, Etc. (01:27:33) Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy (01:33:25) Stalking (01:39:15) Influence of Children on Mate Value Assessments  (01:43:24) Attachment Styles, Mate Choice & Infidelity (01:46:40) Non-Monogamy, Unconventional Relationships   (01:54:00) Mate Value Self Evaluation, Anxiety About the Truth (02:02:12) Self Deception (02:05:35) The Future of Evolutionary Psychology & Neuroscience   (02:06:56) Books: When Men Behave Badly; The Evolution of Desire, Textbooks (02:10:42) Concluding Statements, Zero-Cost Support: Subscribe, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-11-29
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The Science of Gratitude & How to Build a Gratitude Practice | Episode 47

In this episode, I discuss the science of gratitude, which has been shown in peer-reviewed studies to have tremendous positive effects on mental and physical health. I explain, however, that most commonly used gratitude practices are ineffective (such as gratitude lists). The key elements of highly effective gratitude practices are described, including the essential need for story (narrative), receiving or perceiving gratitude rather than giving it, and the role that theory of mind plays in this context. I also discuss why we can't simply make up feelings of gratitude and how reluctance undermines the process. I also explain the neural circuit mechanisms that underlie the reductions in fear and increases in motivation and lowering of inflammatory chemicals that effective narrative-based gratitude can trigger. Throughout the episode, I use the science of gratitude to design a brief but highly effective protocol.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00 Introduction: Gratitude Science & Surprises (00:01:50 Controlling Heart Rate with Story (00:04:33 Sponsors (00:09:11 Major, Long-Lasting Benefits of Gratitude Practice (00:12:20 Prosocial vs. Defensive Thinking, Behaviors, & Neural Circuits  (00:17:50 Why We All Need an Effective Gratitude Practice (00:21:22 Neurochemistry & Neural Circuits of Gratitude (00:25:10 Prefrontal Cortex Set Context (00:30:10 Ineffective Gratitude Practices; Autonomic Variables (00:34:55 Key Features of Effective Gratitude Practices: Receiving Thanks & Story (00:42:30 Theory of Mind Is Key (00:45:50 Building Effective Gratitude Practices: Adopting Narratives, Duration (00:52:28 Narratives That Shift Brain-Body Circuits  (00:56:15 You Can?t Lie About Liking Something; Reluctance In Giving (00:59:55 How Gratitude Changes Your Brain: Reduces Anxiety, Increases Motivation (01:03:00 5 Minutes (Is More Than Enough), 3X Weekly, Timing Each Day  (01:05:44 Empathy & Anterior Cingulate Cortex (01:07:35 Reducing Inflammation & Fear with Gratitude (01:10:56 Serotonin, Kanna/Zembrin  (01:16:00 Neuroplasticity, Pharmacology, Brain Machine Interfaces (01:18:50 The Best Gratitude Practices: & How To, My Protocol (01:24:25 Subscribe & Feedback, Supporting Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-11-22
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Time Perception & Entrainment by Dopamine, Serotonin & Hormones | Episode 46

In this episode, I discuss how our brain and body track time and the role that neurochemicals, in particular dopamine and serotonin, but also hormones such as melatonin, allow us to orient ourselves in time. I review the three types of time perception: of the past, of the present, and the future, and how dopamine and serotonin adjust both our perception of the speed of the passage of time and our memory of how long previous experiences lasted. I also discuss circannual entrainment, which is the process by which our brain and body are matched to the seasons, and circadian (24 hours) entrainment, both of which subconsciously adjust our perceived measurement of time. I explain the mechanisms of that subconscious control. And I cover the ultradian (90 minutes) rhythms that govern our ability to focus, including how to track when these 90-minute rhythms begin and end for the sake of work and productivity. I include ten tools based on the science of time perception that you can apply to enhance productivity, creativity, and relationships in various contexts.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Time Perception, Note on Fasting & Supplements (00:05:12) Sponsors (00:09:25) Entrainment, Circannual Entrainment, Melatonin (00:13:20) Seasonal Oscillations in Testosterone & Estrogen, Tool 1 (00:16:06) Circadian Timing, Tools 1, 2, 3 (for Circadian Entrainment) (00:21:13) Tool 4: Timing Physical Activity; Tool 5: Timing Eating Window (00:23:00) When Circadian Entrainment is Disrupted, Time Perception Suffers (00:25:00) Tool 6: Ultradian (90min) Cycles & Focus (00:31:42) Our Sense of the Passage of Time: Present, Prospective, Retrospective (00:34:40) Dopamine (& Nor/epinephrine) Lead to Time Overestimation; Frame Rate  (00:37:18) Serotonin & Time Underestimation; Decreased Frame Rate (00:39:10) Dopamine vs. Serotonin Across the Day; Tool 7: When to Do Rigid vs. Creative Work (00:42:38) Example of Tool 7 (00:43:38) How Sleep Deprivation Degrades Performance (00:44:38) Trauma, ?Over-clocking? & Memories; Adjusting Rates of Experience (00:50:04) Why Trauma Involves Dopamine & Epinephrine, Arousal (00:51:03) Dopamine, Spontaneous Blinking & Time Perception; Tool 8 (00:53:38) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Dopamine, Tool 9: Adjusting Frame Rate in Discomfort (00:56:30) Fun ?Feels Fast? BUT Is Remembered as Slow; Boring Stuff ?Feels Slow,? Recall As Fast (01:00:54) Retrospective Time, Context Variation & Enhanced Bonding with Places & People (01:03:00) Dopamine Release Resets the Start of Each Time Bin on Our Experience (01:07:40) Habits & Time Perception; Tool 10 (Setting Functional Units of Each Day) (01:11:58) Synthesis & Book Suggestion (Your Brain Is a Time Machine by D. Buonomano) (01:12:27) Supporting the HLP: Subscribe, Instagram, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-11-15
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Dr. Duncan French: How to Exercise for Strength Gains & Hormone Optimization | Episode 45

In this episode, I talk to Dr. Duncan French, Ph.D., the Vice President of Performance at the UFC Performance Institute and a world-class performance specialist. We discuss specific resistance (weight) training regimens for increasing testosterone in men and women and how to vary mechanical loads and rest between sets and workouts to optimize hormone output and training results. We also discuss how stress-induced "catecholamines" can increase testosterone or decrease it, depending on duration and mindset. And we discuss specific cold- and heat- therapies for increasing resilience, reducing inflammation, heat shock proteins and more. We discuss nutrition for training and how to match nutrition to training goals and metabolic flexibility. We discuss mental focus and how long to train for skill development. Finally, we discuss how mixed martial arts and the UFC Performance Institute are a template for exploring human performance more generally. This episode is intended for anyone interested in athletic and mental performance: athletes, students, and recreational exercisers and includes both science and many practical tools people can apply in their own training.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Duncan French  (00:02:27) Sponsors (00:05:44) Duncan?s Background in Exercise Science (00:11:45) How Certain Exercises Increase Testosterone (00:16:22) What Kind of Training Increases Testosterone & Growth Hormone? (00:20:19) Intensity: Mechanical Load; Volume: Metabolic Load; Inter-set Rest Periods (00:25:25) Training Frequency & Combining Workout Goals   (00:29:35) How Stress Can Increase or Decrease Testosterone  (00:36:55) Using Cold Exposure for Mindset, Anti-Inflammation, Muscle-Growth (00:46:55) Skill Development (00:50:05) Why Hard Exercise Creates Brain Fog: Role of Nutrition  (00:53:55) Low-Carbohydrate Versus All-Macronutrient Diets on Performance (00:56:15) Ketones & Brain Energy, Offsetting Brain Injury; Spiking Glucose During Ketosis (00:59:13) Metabolic Efficiency, Matching Nutrition to Training, ?Needs Based Eating? (01:05:00) Duncan?s Work with Olympic Athletes, NCAA, UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship) (01:08:00) Why UFC & MMA (Mixed-Martial Arts) Are So Valuable for Advancing Performance (01:12:40) Voluntarily Switching Between Different States of Arousal (01:14:30) Heat, Getting Better at Sweating, Heat Shock Proteins, Sauna (01:20:12) Using Rotating 12-Week Training Programs; Logging Objective & Subjective Data (01:24:07) Surprising & Unknown Aspects of The UFC and UFC Performance Institute (01:27:45) Conclusions, Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-11-08
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Using Your Nervous System to Enhance Your Immune System | Episode 44

This episode teaches you a lot about the immune system, immune-brain interactions and offers 12 potential tools for enhancing immune system function. I discuss how our immune system works and science-supported tools we can use to enhance our immune system. I discuss the innate and adaptive immune systems and our various microbiomes-- not just in our gut but also in our nose, eyes and mouth and how to keep them healthy. And I review how specific patterns of breathing and foods maintain a healthy mucosal barrier that is crucial for fighting infections. I discuss how certain neurochemicals called catecholamines enhance our immune system function and how to use specific breathing protocols, types and timing of heat and cold exposure, and, if appropriate, supplementation to activate catecholamines. I also discuss the role and use of serotonin for the sake of accessing the specific types of sleep for recovering from illness, and I discuss how to increase glymphatic "washout" of brain debris during sleep. I also review fever, the vagus nerve and the use of atypical yet highly effective compounds for rhinitis (nasal inflammation). Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) The Mind & Immune System, New Findings: Acupuncture & Fascia (00:03:00) Sponsors (00:07:41) Foundational Tools & Practices for a Healthy Immune System (00:11:20) Immune System Basics: Skin/Mucous, Innate & Adaptive Immune System (00:17:08) Killer Cells, Complement Proteins (?Eat Me!? Signals), Cytokines (?Help Me!? Signals) (00:21:06) The Adaptive Immune System: Antibodies (00:28:00) Tool 1: Nasal Microbiome and ?Scrubbing? Bacteria & Viruses; Nasal Breathing (00:30:33) Tools 2 & 3: (Not) Touching Your Eyes; Gut Microbiome & Fermented Foods (00:34:20) Some Interleukins Are Anti-Inflammatory (00:34:56) Sickness Behavior (00:39:08) Some People Seek Care When Sick, Others Want to be Alone (00:42:00) Sickness Behavior & Depression: Cytokines (00:43:40) Reduced Appetites When Sick: Protein, Iron, Libido (00:46:45) Vagus-Nerve Stimulation: Fever, Photophobia, Sleepiness (00:53:03) Humoral (Blood-Borne) Factors, & Choroid Change Your Brain State (00:55:04) Tools 4, 5: Reducing Sickness: Glymphatic Clearance, Pre-Sleep Serotonin, 5HTP (01:07:03) Tool 6: Hot Showers, Saunas, Baths & Cortisol, Heath-Cold Contrast (01:10:53) Feed a Fever & Starve a Cold (?), Adrenaline (01:12:36) Tool 7: Activating Your Immune System w/Cyclic-Hyperventilation, Alkalinity (01:29:10) Brain Chemicals & Cyclic-Hyperventilation; Catecholamines, Dopamine (01:32:10) Mindsets & Immune Function; Yes, You Can Worry Yourself Sick (01:37:00) Tool 8: Healthy Mindsets, Hope, Dopamine; Tool 9: Tyrosine; Tool 10: Cold Exposure (01:42:05) Once You?re Already Sick: Accelerating Recovery; Tool 11: Spirulina, Rhinitis (01:46:09) Histamines, Mast Cells (01:49:22) Tool 12: Acupuncture: Mechanism for How It Reduces Inflammation; Fascia, Rolfing  (01:53:40) Mechanistic Science & Ancient Practices (01:58:00) Synthesis, Ways to Support Us (Zero-Cost), Sponsors, Supplements, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-11-01
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Dr. Samer Hattar: Timing Your Light, Food, & Exercise for Optimal Sleep, Energy & Mood | Episode 43

In this episode, I host Dr. Samer Hattar, Chief of the Section on Light and Circadian Rhythms at the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Hattar is a world-renowned expert on how viewing light at particular times adjusts our mood, ability to learn, stress and hormone levels, appetite, and mental health. We discuss how to determine and use your individual light sensitivity to determine the optimal sleep-wake cycle for you. We also discuss how to combine your light viewing and waking time with the timing of your food intake and exercise in order to maximize mental and physical functioning. Dr. Hattar is credited with co-discovering the neurons in the eye that set our circadian clocks and regulate mood and appetite. He explains why even a small shift in daylight savings leads to outsized effects on our biking because of the way that our cells and circadian clocks integrate across many days. And he offers precise tools to rapidly adjust to jetlag, shift work, and reset your clock after a late night of work or socializing. This episode is filled with cutting-edge data on the biological mechanisms of human physiology and practical tools for people of all ages.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Samer Hattar, Ph.D. (00:02:17) Sponsors (00:06:15) Light, Circadian (24 hour) & Circannual (365 day) ?Photoentrainment?  (00:14:30) Neurons in Our Eyes That Set Our Body Clocks: Similar to Frog Skin (00:18:55) What Blind People See  (00:20:15) When, How & How Long to View Light for Optimal Sleep & Wakefulness (00:30:20) Sunlight Simulators, Afternoon Light Viewing, Naps (00:33:48) Are You Jetlagged at Home? Chronotypes & Why Early Risers Succeed  (00:38:33) How to Decide Your Best Sleep-Wake Schedule; Minimal Light Test (00:42:16) Viewing Light in Middle of Day: Mood & ?Light Hunger? (00:44:55) Evening Sunlight; Blueblocker Warning (00:48:57) Blue Light Is Not the Issue; Samer?s Cave; Complete Darkness (00:53:58) Screens at Night (00:56:03) Dangers of Bright Light Between 10 pm and 4 am: Mood & Learning (01:01:05) The Tripartite Model: Circadian, Sleep Drive, Feeding Schedules (01:05:05) Using Light to Enhance Your Mood; & The Hattar-Hernandez Nucleus (01:07:19) Why Do We Sleep? (01:08:17) Effects of Light on Appetite; Regular Light & Meal Times (01:18:08) Samer?s Experience with Adjusting Meal Timing (01:22:51) Using Light to Align Sleep, Mood, Feeding, Exercise & Cognition (01:30:15) Age-Related Changes in Timing of Mental & Physical Vigor   (01:31:44) ?Chrono-Attraction? in Relationships; Social-Rhythms (01:33:40) Re-setting Our Clock Schedule; Screen Devices Revisited (01:37:50) How Samer Got into the Study of Light  (01:39:33) Clock Gene mRNAs & More Accurate Biomarkers (01:41:08) Light as Medicine (01:42:48) ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)  (01:43:35) How to Beat Jetlag: Light, Temperature, Eating (01:50:44) Vigor: The Consequence of Proper Timing  (01:52:15) Waking in the Middle of the Night: When Your Nightly Sleep Becomes a Nap (01:54:10) Melatonin, Pineal Calcification (01:55:25) Our Seasonal Rhythms: Mood, Depression, Lethargy & Reproduction (01:59:08) Daylight Savings: Much Worse Than It Might Seem  (02:05:27) Eye Color & Sensitivity to Light, Bipolar Disorder (02:09:28) Spicy Food, Genetic Variations in Sensory Sensitivity  (02:10:52) Synthesizing This Information, Samer on Twitter, Instagram (02:13:00) Conclusions, Ways To Support the Huberman Lab Podcast & Research Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-10-25
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Nutrients For Brain Health & Performance | Episode 42

This episode I describe science-supported nutrients for brain and performance (cognition) and for nervous system health generally. I describe 10 tools for this purpose, including specific amounts and sources for Omega-3 fatty acids which make up the "structural fat" of neurons (nerve cells) and allow them to function across our lifespan. I also review data on creatine, phosphatidylserine, anthocyanins, choline, glutamine and how they each impact brain function in healthy people seeking to reinforce and improve their cognition and in those combatting cognitive decline. I describe both food-based and supplement-based sources for these compounds, and their effective dose ranges based on peer-reviewed literature. Then I review the 3 factors: gut-brain signaling, perceived taste, and learned associations that combine with the metabolic and blood-sugar-elevating effects of food to determine what foods we seek and prefer. Amazingly, it's not just about what tastes good to us. Next, I explore how we can leverage the neural circuits of learned food preference toward seeking and enjoying the right foods for brain health and performance. I also review new data on non-caloric sweeteners and why consuming them with glucose-elevating foods can be detrimental, in some cases rapidly leading to insulin dysregulation. This episode covers more than 10 actionable tools for those seeking to improve and/or maintain brain function, and it explains modern neuroscience underlying of our sense of taste, our food seeking preferences and brain metabolism. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Food & Brain Function Introduction (00:02:08) Summary: Critical Aspects of Time Restricted Feeding/Fasting (00:04:19) Sponsors (00:08:24) Neuroplasticity Super Protocol (Zero-Cost Tools) Online (00:09:22) Eating to Enhance Brain Function & Foundational Aspects of Brain Health  (00:13:00) Eating Fats for Brain Health, EFAs Phospholipids (Tool 1: 1-3g EPA Omega-3/day)  (00:20:35) Phosphatidylserine (Tool 2: 300mg/day) (00:22:15) Choline, Egg Yolks (Tool 3: 1-2g/day Threshold) (00:28:26) Hydration & Electrolytes (Tool 4) (00:29:50) Liquid Fish Oil/Capsules (2-3g EPA per day; 300mg Alpha GPC 2-4X/week) (00:32:22) Creatine for Cognition (Tool 5: 5g/day)  (00:36:28) Anthocyanins, Dark Skin Berries (Tool 6-10mg/day (Extract), 1-2 cups Berries)  (00:41:19) L-Glutamine (Tool: 1-10g/day) & Offsetting Apnea & Inflammation (00:49:23) Neural Basis of Food Preference, Yum, Yuck, Meh; Taste, Guts, & Beliefs (00:55:25) Taste is 100% In your Head (00:59:50) Gut Neurons Controlling Food Preference: Neuropod Cells; (Tool 7: Fermented Foods)  (01:06:14) Capsule Probiotics, Brain Fog  (01:07:16) Learning to Like Specific Tastes: Sweetness & Brain Metabolism (01:12:11) Hard-Wiring & Soft-Wiring (01:13:25) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners: Safe or Harmful Depends on (Glucose) Context (01:18:15) Non-Caloric Sweetener & Insulin; (Tool 8: Don?t Have w/Glucose Elevating Foods) (01:22:17) Beliefs & Thoughts; The Insula; (Tool 9: Pairing-Based Reshaping Food Preferences)  (01:30:42) Liking Neuro-Healthy Foods & Bettering Brain Metabolism (Tool 10); Food Wars (01:36:05) Food Reward & Diabetes, Obesity; Important Review Article (See Caption) (01:38:28) Synthesis, Zero-Cost Support, Future Topic Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-10-18
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Effects of Fasting & Time Restricted Eating on Fat Loss & Health | Episode 41

This episode I discuss the science and practice of fasting also called time-restricted feeding. I review the data on how limiting food intake to specific portions of every 24-hour cycle (or fasting longer) impacts weight loss, fat loss specifically, liver health, mental focus, muscle, longevity and more. I explain how "fasted" is contextual, and relates to blood glucose levels and their downstream effects, and how the depth of fasting can be adjusted with behaviors such as different types of exercise, or with glucose disposal agents. I also discuss the optimal fasting protocol: and both the absolute (non-negotiable) and variable (contextual) features of a fasting/time-restricted-feeding protocol that will allow you to get the most benefits. I also discuss what does and does not break a fast, the effects of fasting on hormones like testosterone and cortisol and on fertility. I also review how different feeding windows of 8 or 10 or 4 hours differentially impact the effects of fasting, and why the classic 8 hour feeding window came to be but also might be ideal. I discuss mechanisms and offer tools to discern the optimal fasting duration and timing for you.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction, Blood Glucose & Mortality, Mice Vs. Humans (00:06:02) Sponsors (00:09:42) Neuroplasticity Protocols & Online Lecture (https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M) (00:11:20) Feeding, Fasting, Performance (00:13:50) Calories-In, Calories-Out (CICO); Perfect Diets (00:19:48) Feeding-Induced Health Conditions  (00:25:33) Time Restricted Eating: When We Eat Is Vital (00:29:45) The Eight Hour Feeding Window  (00:31:26) Feeding Deep Into the Night Is Bad (In Humans) (00:36:33) Liver Health (00:39:45) Time Restricted Feeding Protocol: Rules (00:41:35) When to Start & Stop Eating (00:45:38) Gastric Clearance, Linking Fasting to Sleep (00:52:35) Effects of Specific Categories of Food (00:55:40) Precision In Fasting: Protocol Build (00:59:30) 4-6 Hour Feeding Windows (01:03:08) Protein Consumption & Timing for Muscle (01:08:13) How to Shift Your Eating Window (01:13:20) Glucose Clearing, Exercise & Compounds (01:22:37) Blood Glucose: Monitoring, mTOR & Related Pathways (01:27:40) Gut Health: Fasting, Clock Genes and Microbiota (01:29:15) Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver  (01:32:00) Effects of Fasting on Hormones: Testosterone, Cortisol (01:38:40) Fertility (01:41:50) 8-Hour Feeding Window: Weight Loss Without Calorie Counting (01:43:20) Eating Every-Other-Day  (01:45:29) Adherence (01:47:15) Mental Focus & Clarity (01:49:12) Enhancing Weight Loss from Body Fat: Hepatic Lipase (01:53:15) What Breaks a Fast? Rules & Context (01:58:50) Artificial Sweeteners, Plant-Based Sweeteners (02:01:42) Glucose Clearing II, Cinnamon, Acidity, Salt (02:06:42) My Circadian Clock, Zero-App  (02:08:20) Odd (But Common) Questions (02:09:23) Effects of Sauna & Dehydration on Blood Glucose (02:11:12) The Ideal Fasting Protocol  (02:24:00) More Resources, Ways to Support Us, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-10-11
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Dr. Craig Heller: Using Temperature To Optimize Performance, Brain & Body Health | Episode 40

This episode I am joined by Dr. Craig Heller, Professor of Biology at Stanford University and world expert on the science of temperature regulation. We discuss how the body and brain maintain temperature under different conditions and how most everyone uses the wrong approach to cool off or heat up. Dr. Heller teaches us the best ways and in doing so, explains how to offset hyperthermia and hypothermia. He also explains how we can use the precise timing and location of cooling on our body to greatly enhance endurance and weight training performance. He describes how cooling technology discovered and engineered in his laboratory has led to a tripling of anaerobic (weight training) performance and allowed endurance athletes to run further and faster, as well as to eliminate delayed onset muscle soreness. Dr. Heller explains how heat impairs muscular and mental performance, and how to cool the brain to reduce inflammation and to enhance sleep and cognition. We discuss how anyone can apply these principles for themselves, even their dogs! Our conversation includes both many practical tools and mechanistic science. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Craig Heller, Physiology & Performance (00:02:00) Sponsors (00:06:45) Cold Showers, Ice Baths, Cryotherapy (00:10:45) Boundary Layers  (00:11:55) Cooling Before Aerobic Activity to Enhance Performance (00:14:45) Anaerobic Activity Locally Increases Muscle Heat (00:16:45) Temperature Gates Our Energy Use  (00:19:00) Local Versus Systemic Fatigue: Heat Is Why We Fail (00:22:10) Cooling Off: Most Methods are Counterproductive (00:26:43) Exercise-Induced Brain Fog (00:27:45) Hyperthermia (00:31:50) Best Body Sites for Cooling: Palms, Foot Pads, Upper Face  (00:38:00) Cooling Your Brain via The Upper Face; Concussion (00:41:25) Extraordinary (Tripling!) Performance by Cooling the Palms (00:45:35) Enhancing Recovery, Eliminating Soreness w/Intra-workout Cooling (00:50:00) Multiple Sclerosis: Heat Sensitivity & Amelioration with Cooling (00:51:00) Enhancing Endurance with Proper Cooling (00:53:00) Cool Mitt, Ice-Cold Is Too Cold, 3 Minutes Cooling (00:58:20) How You Can Use Palmer Cooling to Enhance Performance (01:01:15) Radiation, Convection, Heat-Transfer, Role of Surface Area (01:04:40) Hypothermia Story, Ideal Re-Heating Strategy (01:11:40) Paw-lmer Cooling for Dog Health & Performance (01:12:45) Warming Up, & Varying Temperature Around the Body (01:17:35) Cooling-Enhanced Performance Is Permanent (01:19:55) Anabolic Steroids versus Palmer Cooling (01:24:00) Female Athletic Performance  (01:25:18) Shivering & Cold, Metabolism (01:26:55) Studies of Bears & Hibernation, Brown Fat (01:31:10) Brown Fat Distribution & Activation In Humans (01:34:18) Brain Freeze, Ice Headache: Blood Pressure, Headache (01:37:50) Fidgeters, Non-Exercise Induced Thermogenesis (01:39:44) How Pre-Workout Drinks, & Caffeine May Inhibit Performance (01:43:42) Sleep, Cold, Warm Baths, Screens, & Socks (01:48:44) Synthesis (01:49:30) Supporting the Podcast & Scientific Research  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-10-04
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Controlling Your Dopamine For Motivation, Focus & Satisfaction | Episode 39

This episode serves as a sort of ?Dopamine Masterclass?. I discuss the immensely powerful chemical that we all make in our brain and body: dopamine. I describe what it does and the neural circuits involved. I explain dopamine peaks and baselines, and the cell biology of dopamine depletion. I include 14 tools for how to control your dopamine release for sake of motivation, focus, avoiding and combating addiction and depression, and I explain why dopamine stacking with chemicals and behaviors inevitably leads to states of underwhelm and poor performance. I explain how to achieve sustained increases in baseline dopamine, compounds that injure and protect dopamine neurons including caffeine from specific sources. I describe non-prescription supplements for increasing dopamine?both their benefits and risks?and synergy of pro-dopamine supplements with those that increase acetylcholine.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction & Tool 1 to Induce Lasting Dopamine (00:04:48) Sponsors (00:09:10) Upcoming (Zero-Cost) Neuroplasticity Seminar for Educators (00:09:58) What Dopamine (Really) Does (00:15:30) Two Main Neural Circuits for Dopamine  (00:18:14) How Dopamine Is Released: Locally and Broadly (00:22:03) Fast and Slow Effects of Dopamine (00:25:03) Dopamine Neurons Co-Release Glutamate (00:28:00) Your Dopamine History Really Matters  (00:30:30) Parkinson?s & Drugs That Kill Dopamine Neurons. My Dopamine Experience  (00:36:58) Tool 3 Controlling Dopamine Peaks & Baselines (00:40:06) Chocolate, Sex (Pursuit & Behavior), Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine, Exercise (00:46:46) Tool 4 Caffeine Increases Dopamine Receptors (00:49:54) Pursuit, Excitement & Your ?Dopamine Setpoint? (00:56:46) Your Pleasure-Pain Balance & Defining ?Pain? (01:00:00) Addiction, Dopamine Depletion, & Replenishing Dopamine (01:07:50) Tool 5 Ensure Your Best (Healthy) Dopamine Release (01:15:28) Smart Phones: How They Alter Our Dopamine Circuits (01:19:45) Stimulants & Spiking Dopamine: Counterproductive for Work, Exercise & Attention (01:22:20) Caffeine Sources Matter: Yerba Mate & Dopamine Neuron Protection (01:24:20) Caffeine & Neurotoxicity of MDMA (01:26:15) Amphetamine, Cocaine & Detrimental Rewiring of Dopamine Circuits (01:27:57) Ritalin, Adderall, (Ar)Modafinil: ADHD versus non-Prescription Uses (01:28:45) Tool 6 Stimulating Long-Lasting Increases in Baseline Dopamine  (01:37:55) Tool 7 Tuning Your Dopamine for Ongoing Motivation (01:47:40) Tool 8 Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Dopamine  (01:53:09) Validation of Your Pre-Existing Beliefs Increases Dopamine (01:53:50) Tool 9 Quitting Sugar & Highly Palatable Foods: 48 Hours (01:55:36) Pornography (01:56:50) Wellbutrin & Depression & Anxiety (01:58:30) Tool 10 Mucuna Pruriens, Prolactin, Sperm, Crash Warning (02:01:45) Tool 11 L-Tyrosine: Dosages, Duration of Effects & Specificity (02:05:20) Tool 12 Avoiding Melatonin Supplementation, & Avoiding Light 10pm-4am (02:07:00) Tool 13 Phenylethylamine (with Alpha-GPC) For Dopamine Focus/Energy (02:08:20) Tool 14 Huperzine A (02:10:02) Social Connections, Oxytocin & Dopamine Release (02:12:20) Direct & Indirect Effects: e.g., Maca; Synthesis & Application (02:14:22) Zero-Cost & Other Ways To Support Podcast & Research Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-09-27
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Dr. Matthew Johnson: Psychedelics for Treating Mental Disorders | Episode 38

This episode I discuss medical research on psychedelic compounds with Dr. Matthew Johnson, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. We discuss the biology and medical clinical-trial uses of psilocybin, MDMA, ayahuasca, DMT, and LSD. Dr. Johnson teaches us what the clinical trials in his lab are revealing about the potential these compounds hold for the treatment of depression, addiction, trauma, eating disorders, ADHD, and other disorders of the mind. Dr. Johnson describes a typical psychedelic experiment in his laboratory, start to finish, including the conditions for optimal clinical outcomes. And he explains some of the potential hazards and common misconceptions and pitfalls related to psychedelic medicine. Dr. Johnson explains flashbacks, the heightened risks of certain people and age groups using psychedelics and the ever evolving legal and pharmaceutical industry landscape surrounding psychedelics. Dr. Johnson also explains how the scientific study of psychedelics is likely to set the trajectory of psychiatric medicine in the years to come. Dr. Johnson is among a small handful of researchers who have pioneered the clinical study of these powerful compounds. He has unprecedented insight into how they can be woven into other psychiatric treatments, changing ones sense of self and of reality. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Matthew Johnson (00:02:10) Supporting Sponsors (00:06:40) ?Psychedelics? Defined (00:14:09) Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Altered Space-Time Perception (00:19:56) Serotonin & Dopamine  (00:23:50) Ketamine & Glutamate  (00:28:00) An Example Psychedelic Experiment (00:37:30) ?Letting Go? with Psychedelics (00:44:10) Our Mind?s Eye (00:48:00) Redefining Your Sense of Self  (00:58:56) Exporting Psychedelic Learnings to Daily Life (01:04:36) Flashbacks (01:12:10) Ayahuasca, & ASMR, Kundalini Breathing (01:15:54) MDMA, DMT (01:26:00) Dangers of Psychedelics, Bad Trips, Long-Lasting Psychosis (01:38:15) Micro-Dosing (01:56:45) Risks for Kids, Adolescents & Teenagers; Future Clinical Trials (02:03:40) Legal Status: Decriminalization vs. Legalization vs. Regulation (02:18:35) Psychedelics for Treating Concussion & Traumatic Brain Injury  (02:27:45) Shifting Trends in Psychedelic Research, Academic Culture (02:44:23) Participating in a Clinical Trial, Online Survey Studies, Breathwork  (02:50:38) Conclusions, Subscribing & Supporting the HLP, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2021-09-20
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